skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hrafn 7II/1 — inn ‘The’

Helt inn hraðmælti
hringa viðþingaðr
leiðir lögskíðum
leygs í Suðreyjar.
Upp gaf alkeppnum
Engus herfengna
Íl fyr ítrbóla
eyði dalreyðar.

Inn hraðmælti viðþingaðr hringa helt lögskíðum leiðir leygs í Suðreyjar. Engus gaf upp herfengna Íl fyr alkeppnum eyði ítrbóla dalreyðar.

The quick-spoken assembly-convener of swords [WARRIOR] brought the sea-skis [SHIPS] on the paths of the ocean to the Hebrides. Angus surrendered Islay, captured in battle, on account of the very vigorous spoiler of the splendid lair of the valley-char [SNAKE > GOLD > GENEROUS MAN].

kennings

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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