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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÚlfrU Húsdr 2III

Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Úlfr Uggason, Húsdrápa 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 407.

Úlfr UggasonHúsdrápa
123

This is the sole remaining stanza from a passage about a conflict between Heimdallr and Loki. According to Snorri, Úlfr Uggason made a lengthy composition about this episode (SnE 1998, I, 19): Úlfr Uggason kvað í Húsdrápu langa stund eptir þeiri frásǫguÚlfr Uggason composed a long section about that story in Húsdrápa’; hence there may originally have been several more stanzas devoted to this event (cf. Turville-Petre 1964, 128-9). Unfortunately we learn very little about this myth from SnE. In his discussion of kennings for Heimdallr, Snorri explains (SnE 1998, I, 19): Hann er ok tilsœkir Vágaskers ok Singasteins; þá deildi hann við Loka um Brísingamen ‘He is also a seeker of Vágasker (‘Wave-skerry’) and Singasteinn; at that time he quarrelled with Loki over Brísingamen’. He also mentions (ibid.), with reference to Húsdr, that þeir váru í sela líkjum ‘they took the form of seals’. Brísingamen ‘necklace of the Brísingar’ is Freyja’s necklace (for detailed information see Pering 1941, 212-14) and it is usually associated with the Loki-kenning girðiþjófr Brísings ‘girdle-thief of Brísingr’ in Þjóð Haustl 9/6-7 (see Note there). Snorri’s remark about Heimdallr and Loki quarrelling over the necklace Brísingamen at a place called Singasteinn and, in addition to that, the fact that Brísingamen itself is the object of various mythological speculations, has caused numerous problems for the interpretation of the stanza. Although the stanza itself is not explicitly about Brísingamen, many editors have nonetheless tried to identify Singasteinn or hafnýra or both with that necklace (see Notes to ll. 2 and 6). Scholars who have followed Snorri and assumed that the stanza is about the necklace Brísingamen have interpreted the struggle between Heimdallr and Loki variously as the theft of fire (Much 1898, 54-5; Cöllen 2007, 72-6), as a quarrel over a piece of amber (de Vries 1933, 129) or an amulet (Pering 1941, 215-20), as a myth about the setting sun (Ohlmarks 1937, 132), as a myth about the seasons (Ström 1956, 145) and as a myth about Heimdallr as the ruler of the future world (Thorvaldsen 2003, 187-9). Other scholars have found Snorri’s claim about Loki and Heimdallr quarrelling over Brísingamen speculative, which is probably correct. From Haustl he would have known Loki as the thief of Brísingamen; hence he could have introduced the necklace as the reason for the conflict. Loki is notorious as the thief among the gods in the Old Norse pantheon, and Snorri (SnE 1998, I, 20) lists the Loki-kennings þjófr jǫtna, hafrs ok Brísingamens ok Iðunnar epla ‘thief of the giants, of the ram and of Brísingamen and of the apples of Iðunn’. This may indicate that a series of structurally similar narratives existed about Loki as the thief of precious goods (de Vries 1933, 135). However, there is no direct evidence for the quarrel between Heimdallr and Loki over Brísingamen assumed by Snorri.

Ráðgegninn bregðr ragna
rein at Singasteini
frægr við firna slœgjan
Fárbauta mǫg vári.
Móðǫflugr ræðr mœðra
mǫgr hafnýra fǫgru
(kyndik áðr) ok einnar
átta (mærðar þôttum).

{Ráðgegninn, frægr vári ragna} bregðr rein við {firna slœgjan mǫg Fárbauta} at Singasteini. {Móðǫflugr mǫgr átta mœðra ok einnar} ræðr {fǫgru hafnýra}; kyndik áðr þôttum mærðar.

{The counsel-wise, renowned defender of the gods} [= Heimdallr] takes away land from {the amazingly cunning son of Fárbauti <giant>} [= Loki] at Singasteinn. {The courage-strong son of eight mothers and one} [= Heimdallr] rules {the beautiful sea-kidney} [STONE]; I revealed [that] earlier in the strands of the praise-poem.

Mss: R(22v), Tˣ(23r), W(49) (SnE)

Readings: [1] ragna: ‘raugna’ Tˣ, ‘rogna’ W    [3] slœgjan: so W, slœgjum R, ‘slogian’ Tˣ    [4] mǫg: so W, mǫgr R, Tˣ    [6] haf‑: ‘haft‑’ W    [7] kyndik: kynni ek R, W, kunni ek Tˣ;    ok: so Tˣ, en R, at W

Editions: Skj AI, 136-7, Skj BI, 128, Skald I, 71, NN §§420, 1890, 1952, 2502C, 3214; SnE 1848-87, I, 268-9, III, 20-1, SnE 1931, 100, SnE 1998, I, 20.

Context: This stanza exemplifies a kenning for Loki (þrætudolgr Heimdalar ok Skaða ‘quarrel-opponent of Heimdallr and of Skaði’) in Skm (SnE), and after it Snorri notes that Heimdallr is called ‘son of nine mothers’.

Notes: [1] bregðr ‘takes away’: This verb’s meaning is critical for the interpretation of the first helmingr. Its basic sense is ‘change the position or path of sth., remove sth.’, always with a dat. object (see examples in Fritzner: bregða 1, ONP: bregða). Finnur Jónsson (LP: bregða 1) suggests an intransitive usage with the meaning ‘go somewhere’ for this stanza, but adds that the verb is not attested elsewhere with this meaning. Others interpret bregða við as ‘quarrel against’, clearly inspired by Snorri’s account that Heimdallr quarrelled with Loki over Brísingamen (NN §1952; Faulkes 1987, 77; SnE 1998, II, 250; Schier 1976a, 580-1; Heizmann 2009, 510), yet there is no evidence for this meaning (Fritzner: bregða). Any interpretation of this helmingr must account both for bregða needing a dat. object and for the two prepositional phrases with at and við. There are two possible dat. objects, namely, Singasteini and rein f. ‘strip, plot of land’ (despite Cöllen’s 2007, 65 assumption that the dat. of rein must have ended in ‑u, rein could be an endingless ō-stem; see ANG §376). Barring emendation (see Note to l. 2 rein), rein ‘strip, plot of land’ is the verb’s only possible object, since Singasteini is part of the prepositional phrase at Singasteini (see Note to l. 2 at Singasteini). The second prepositional phrase, við combined with a Loki-kenning (see Note to ll. 3-4), is more difficult to explain. In this context it is important that Snorri presents Loki as the opponent of Heimdallr. Shortly after stating that Heimdallr quarrelled with Loki, Skm (SnE 1998, I, 20) refers to Loki as þrætudolgr Heimdalar ‘quarrel-opponent of Heimdallr’. In light of this and the original meaning of bregða ‘remove sth., take sth. away’ (see Fritzner: bregða 6.), this edn assumes the verbal construction bregða e-u við e-n ‘to take sth. away from sby’. Another possible meaning of bregða e-u við e-n is ‘quarrel over sth. with sby’. Lindquist (1937b, 83) shows that bregða was used idiomatically in this sense in two passages in Grágás. The first helmingr would then describe how Heimdallr takes away land from Loki or quarrels with him over land (see also Schier 1976a, 580). — [1, 4] vári ragna ‘defender of the gods [= Heimdallr]’: For the word vári ‘defender’, see Arn Hryn 13/5II and Note there. The long vowel is ensured by the metre (long vowel in the cadence), which precludes Cöllen’s (2007, 64) suggestion of a short [a] here, as in ON varr ‘wise, knowledgeable’ or ‘cautious’. Vári ‘defender’ needs the determinant ragna ‘of the gods’ to denote Heimdallr, just like vǫrðr goða ‘defender of the gods’ in Grí 13/4 (NK 60), Lok 48/6 (NK 106) and Skm (SnE 1998, I, 19). Kuhn’s (1983, 296) alternative suggestion is vári ‘sworn companion’, probably from várar ‘oaths’. Several eds try to incorporate rein ‘strip of land’ (l. 2) into the kenning vári ragna. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B; LP: reinvári) assumes tmesis by joining rein with vári ‘defender’ (l. 4) and ragna ‘of the gods’ (l. 1), and he construes the Heimdallr-kenning ragna reinvári ‘defender of the path of gods [= Bifrǫst <bridge of the gods>]’ (cf. SnE 1848-87, III, 20-1 and Mogk 1880, 331). Kock (NN §420) rightly objects to this tmesis (with almost all subsequent eds concurring), but he nonetheless interprets ragna rein as ‘bridge of the gods’ and as the object of bregðr. Based on the idiom bregða búi ‘abandon the farm’ he takes the first helmingr to mean that ‘the defender (vári) abandoned the bridge of the gods in the fight with Loki’. In a later interpretation (NN §1952) he emends rein to reinar to achieve the Heimdallr-kenning vári reinar ragna ‘defender of the bridge of the gods’, but as de Vries (1933, 126) rightly objects, this emendation results in a hypermetrical l. 2, because elision of ‑ar and at is not possible in early dróttkvætt (see Kuhn 1936b, 138). Kock’s (NN §3214) subsequent objections to the criticism voiced by de Vries and Kuhn do not disprove their statements about the impossibility of elision, but Kock’s version has nonetheless been adopted by other scholars (e.g. Schier 1976a, 580; Cöllen 2007, 66). This metrical issue leads to a similar emendation of the mss’ ‘rein at’ to reinar, with Singasteini being taken as the dat. object of bregðr and thus not as a locative, but rather in the meaning ‘decorative stone, jewel’ (de Vries 1933, 127; Pering 1941, 210; Schjødt 1981, 62 n. 52 is critical). To sum up: Incorporation of rein into the kenning ragna vári ‘defender of the gods’ for Heimdallr leads either to tmesis (Finnur Jónsson) or to emendations which cause metrical problems (Kock; de Vries). Another objection against the interpretation of rein ragna as ‘bridge of the gods’ or ‘path of the gods [HEAVEN]’ (Ohlmarks 1937, 124) is that rein is never attested with the meanings ‘bridge’ or ‘path’ (cf. de Vries 1933, 126). Therefore the incorporation of rein into the kenning for Heimdallr is extremely problematic, and rein must be taken as the sole object of bregðr ‘remove, take away’ (see Note to l. 2 rein). — [2] rein ‘land’: The word means ‘plot, narrow strip of land’ but has the broader sense ‘land’ in skaldic poetry (see LP: rein). As shown in the Note to ll. 1, 4 above, rein is the sole object of bregðr ‘he takes away’, and the meaning of the helmingr must be that Heimdallr takes land away from Loki. The fact that rein can refer to land that acts as a boundary marker between two parcels of land which nobody was allowed to destroy (Fritzner: rein) may be of interest, but one has to take into account that in the second helmingr this rein seems to be an island or a rock in the sea, the hafnýra ‘sea-kidney [STONE]’ (see Note to l.6). Furthermore, the fact that the two gods fight in the form of seals leads to the conclusion that this quarrel took place in or near the sea. This may corroborate Schier’s (1963) argument that the quarrel between Loki and Heimdallr over a strip of land may have originated in a cosmogonic myth in which both gods serve a divine creator, for (or together with) whom they raise the earth from the sea (cf. Vsp 4) and, in doing so, end up disputing a parcel of land. The story is familiar from a series of folk tales conforming to a mythological pattern found across Europe, Asia and North America. This explanation is supported by Snorri’s remark in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 19) that Úlfr Uggason’s poem portrays the gods fighting as seals, which would fit well with the myth of the raising up of the earth (Marold 2000b; 2000c). For other explanations of the stanza, see Introduction to st. 2 above. — [2] at Singasteini ‘at Singasteinn’: The preposition at ‘at’ and Snorri’s (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 19) Heimdallr-kenning tilsœkir Vágaskers ok Singasteins ‘seeker of Wave-skerry and of Singasteinn’ both indicate that Singasteinn is a p. n. The etymology of Singasteinn is uncertain. Finnur Jónsson (LP: Singasteinn) traces it to Goth. sineigs ‘old’ (so also AEW: Singasteinn), while Tolley (1996, 87) suggests a connection with sía f. ‘cinder, spark’ and de Vries (AEW: Singasteinn) considers this as well. Pering (1941, 219-20) takes Singasteinn as ‘magical stone, amulet’ and connects it with the verb signa ‘bless, consecrate’, which is unlikely because signa is a loanword from Latin (AEW: signa 1). — [3-4] firna slœgjan mǫg Fárbauta ‘the amazingly cunning son of Fárbauti [= Loki]’: In Gylf (SnE 2005, 26) Loki is referred to as the son of the giant Fárbauti (lit. ‘dangerously beating one’). This Loki-kenning is otherwise found only in Þjóð Haustl 5/2. — [6, 7, 8] mǫgr átta mœðra ok einnar ‘the son of eight mothers and one [= Heimdallr]’: There are several references to Heimdallr as the son of nine mothers. Gylf (SnE 2005, 25), Skm (SnE 1998, I, 19) and Hyndl 35-8 describe his birth at the edge of the world, where nine giant-maidens, whose names are listed, give birth to him (his nine mothers are also mentioned in the Heimdalargaldr fragment, cited in Gylf, SnE 2005, 26). On the various explanations of this myth see ARG II, 242. — [6] hafnýra ‘the sea-kidney [STONE]’: Most scholars agree that this is a stone-kenning, and they have pointed to such parallels as Þjóð Yt 18/6I hjarta lagar ‘heart of the water’ or Eil Þdr 16/2 fjarðepli ‘fjord-apple’ (Ohlmarks 1937, 124; Schier 1976b, 583). These stone-kennings seem not to depend on the hardness of the objects a stone is being likened to, but on their form. Yet, opinion differs about what ‘stone’ means in the present helmingr. (a) This edn understands the stone as referring to rein ‘land’ from the first helmingr, i.e. the object of Loki’s and Heimdallr’s quarrel (see Note to l. 2 rein; Schier 1976a, 583-4; Marold 2000a, 296-7; Marold 2000b, 284). This interpretation can be supported by the use of hjarta lagar ‘heart of the water’ to denote an island in Þjóð Yt 18/6I. Hence, hafnýra could refer to a rock in the sea, which would fit very well with the depiction of the quarrel as a fight between seals and one of them in the end ruling over this rock. (b) Other scholars take Snorri’s remark about Brísingamen being the object of contention to mean that hafnýra is a stone-kenning that could also refer to a jewel (Meissner 91) and hence to Brísingamen (Mogk 1880, 331; Skj BI; LP: hafnýra). In most cases they believe that both hafnýra and Singasteinn refer to the necklace. But Singasteinn cannot denote Brísingamen because of its syntactical combination with the preposition at (see Note to l. 2 at Singasteini). Heizmann (2009, 512-21) tries to show that Freyja’s Brísingamen is connected to birth and regeneration. Loki’s theft would then correspond to his role as the gods’ antagonist and the enemy of regeneration. (c) Ohlmarks (1937, 124), Pering (1941, 211) and Schier (1976a, 584) object to the interpretation of hafnýra as Brísingamen; rather, they interpret hafnýra as ‘stone’, arguing that Snorri must have borrowed the notion of a fight over this necklace from elsewhere (see Introduction to st. 2 above). (d) De Vries (1933, 129) equates hafnýra with ‘amber’. (e) Pering (1941, 217-18), followed by Tolley (1996, 83) and Cöllen (2007, 67-70), compares the term ‘sea-kidney’ with later-attested expressions such as ModNorw. sjøbønner ‘sea-beans’ or vettenyrer ‘sprite-kidneys’ which refer to a stony fruit (Pusaetha scandens) with regenerative and other beneficial properties. On this basis he takes hafnýra for a stone amulet. — [7] kyndik áðr ‘I revealed [that] earlier’: Some scholars (Skj B; Schier 1976a, 581; Thorvaldsen 2003, 176; Cöllen 2007, 61-2) place áðr in the main clause of the second helmingr and take it to mean that Heimdallr had once owned the hafnýra (l. 6). Heizmann (2009, 520-1) translates áðr as dann aber ‘but then’ referring to NK II, 12. But the metre precludes this, as no sentence boundary may fall after the second metrical position in this Type A3 odd line, i.e. after ms. kynnik ‘I make known’ (Kuhn 1983, 151-3; Gade 1995a, 153, 161-3). Thus áðr must belong in the parenthetic clause, and this edn solves the difficulty posed by the mss’ pres. tense kynnik by emending to kyndik ‘I made known’ (1st pers. sg. pret. indic.). Kock (NN §1890, followed by de Vries 1933, 127) emends áðr to óð, which is problematic for semantic reasons. He translates kynnik óð … mærðar þôttum as diktkonst visar jag i drápans delar ‘I display the art of poetry in the parts of the drápa’. That interpretation is untenable, however, because óðr means ‘poem’, not ‘poetry’, and kynna ‘make known’, not ‘display’.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  4. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  6. Meissner = Meissner, Rudolf. 1921. Die Kenningar der Skalden: Ein Beitrag zur skaldischen Poetik. Rheinische Beiträge und Hülfsbücher zur germanischen Philologie und Volkskunde 1. Bonn and Leipzig: Schroeder. Rpt. 1984. Hildesheim etc.: Olms.
  7. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  8. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  9. Gade, Kari Ellen. 1995a. The Structure of Old Norse dróttkvætt Poetry. Islandica 49. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  10. ANG = Noreen, Adolf. 1923. Altnordische Grammatik I: Altisländische und altnorwegische Grammatik (Laut- und Flexionslehre) unter Berücksichtigung des Urnordischen. 4th edn. Halle: Niemeyer. 1st edn. 1884. 5th unrev. edn. 1970. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
  11. Turville-Petre, Gabriel. 1964. Myth and Religion of the North. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  12. Faulkes, Anthony, trans. 1987. Snorri Sturluson. Edda. Everyman’s Library. London and Rutland, Vermont: J. M. Dent & Sons and Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc. Rpt. with new chronology and synopsis 2005.
  13. Fritzner = Fritzner, Johan. 1883-96. Ordbog over det gamle norske sprog. 3 vols. Kristiania (Oslo): Den norske forlagsforening. 4th edn. Rpt. 1973. Oslo etc.: Universitetsforlaget.
  14. NK = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1983. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. I: Text. 5th edn. Heidelberg: Winter.
  15. ONP = Degnbol, Helle et al., eds. 1989-. A Dictionary of Old Norse Prose / Ordbog over det norrøne prosasprog. 1-. Copenhagen: The Arnamagnæan Commission.
  16. Kuhn, Hans (1899). 1983. Das Dróttkvætt. Heidelberg: Winter.
  17. SnE 1931 = Snorri Sturluson. 1931. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar. Ed. Finnur Jónsson. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
  18. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  19. SnE 2005 = Snorri Sturluson. 2005. Edda: Prologue and Gylfaginning. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2nd edn. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  20. Kuhn, Hans (1899). 1936b. ‘Zu Ernst Albin Kocks Notationes Norrœnæ: Kritik der §§2501-10’. BGDSL 60, 133-60.
  21. ARG = Vries, Jan de. 1956-7. Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte. 2 vols. 2nd edn. Berlin: de Gruyter.
  22. Schier, Kurt. 1976a. ‘Húsdrápa 2: Heimdall, Loki und die Meerniere’. In Birkhan 1976, 577-88.
  23. NK II = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1968. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. II: Kurzes Wörterbuch. Heidelberg: Winter.
  24. Cöllen, Sebastian. 2007. ‘Der Ursprung des Feuers in nordgermanische Mythologie. Studien zu Húsdrápa 2’. ANF 122, 59-78.
  25. Marold, Edith. 2000a. ‘Die Húsdrápa als kosmologisches Gedicht’. In Barnes et al. 2000, 290-302.
  26. Marold, Edith. 2000b. ‘Kosmogonische Mythen in der Húsdrápa des Úlfr Uggason’. In Dallapiazza et al. 2000, 281-92.
  27. Mogk, Eugen. 1880. ‘Untersuchungen ueber die Gylfaginning. II: Die Quellen der Gylfaginning und ihr Verhältnis zu den sog. Eddaliedern. Anhang Ulfr Uggason’. BGDSL 7, 203-334.
  28. Much, Rudolf. 1898. ‘Der germanische Himmelsgott’. In Detter et al. 1898, 189-278.
  29. Ohlmarks, Åke. 1937. Heimdallr und das Horn. Heimdalls Horn und Odins Auge. Studien zur nordischen und vergleichenden Religionsgeschichte, 1. Buch (I-II). Lund: Gleerup; Copenhagen: Levin & Munksgaard.
  30. Pering, Birger. 1941. Heimdall: Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zum Verständnis der altnordischen Götterwelt. Lund: Gleerup.
  31. Schier, Kurt. 1976b. ‘Die Húsdrápa von Úlfr Uggason und die bildliche Überlieferung altnordischer Mythen’. In Guðni Kolbeinsson et al. 1976, 425-43.
  32. Schjødt, Jens Peter. 1981. ‘Om Loke endnu engang’. ANF 96, 49-86.
  33. Ström, Folke. 1956. Loki: Ein mythologisches Problem. Gothenburg: Elander.
  34. Thorvaldsen, Bernt Øyvind. 2003. ‘Kampen om den kommende verden’. Nordica Bergensia 29, 171-93.
  35. Tolley, Clive. 1996. ‘Heimdallr and the Myth of the Brísingamen in Húsdrápa’. Tijdschrift voor skandinavistiek 17, 83-98.
  36. Vries, Jan de. 1933. The Problem of Loki. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.
  37. Lindquist, Ivar. 1937b. ‘Guden Heimdall enligt Snorres källor’. Vetenskaps-Societeten i Lund. Årsbok, 53-98.
  38. Heizmann, Wilhelm and Heinrich Beck, eds. 2009. Analecta Septentrionalia: Beiträge zur nordgermanischen Kultur- und Literaturgeschichte. Ergänzungsbände zum RGA 65. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.
  39. Heizmann, Wilhelm. 2009. ‘Der Raub des Brísingamen, oder: Worum geht es in Húsdrápa 2?’. In Heizmann et al. 2009, 502-30.
  40. Internal references
  41. Edith Marold 2017, ‘Snorra Edda (Prologue, Gylfaginning, Skáldskaparmál)’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  42. Not published: do not cite (SkmIII)
  43. Not published: do not cite (GylfIII)
  44. Margaret Clunies Ross 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Haustlǫng’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 431.
  45. Edith Marold with the assistance of Vivian Busch, Jana Krüger, Ann-Dörte Kyas and Katharina Seidel, translated from German by John Foulks 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Úlfr Uggason, Húsdrápa’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 402.
  46. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Hrynhenda, Magnússdrápa 13’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 198-200.
  47. Not published: do not cite ()
  48. Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Eilífr Goðrúnarson, Þórsdrápa 16’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 111.
  49. Not published: do not cite ()
  50. Not published: do not cite ()
  51. Not published: do not cite ()
  52. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Haustlǫng 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 439.
  53. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Haustlǫng 9’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 444.
  54. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 18’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 40.
  55. Not published: do not cite ()
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The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.