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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þjsk Hák 1I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorleifr jarlsskáld Rauðfeldarson, Poem about Hákon 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 369.

Þorleifr jarlsskáld RauðfeldarsonPoem about Hákon
12

Hôkun, vitum hvergi
(hafizk hefr runnr af gunni)
fremra jarl und ferli
(folk-Ránar) þér mána.
Þú hefr ǫðlinga Óðni
— etr hrafn af ná getnum —
— vesa mátt af því, vísi,
víðlendr — níu senda.

Hôkun, vitum hvergi jarl fremra þér und {ferli mána}; {runnr {folk-Ránar}} hefr hafizk af gunni. Þú hefr senda Óðni níu ǫðlinga; hrafn etr af getnum ná; vísi, mátt af því vesa víðlendr.

Hákon, we [I] do not know of a jarl anywhere more outstanding than you beneath {the track of the moon} [SKY]; {the tree {of the battle-Rán <goddess>}} [VALKYRIE > WARRIOR = Hákon] has made himself eminent by warfare. You have sent nine nobles to Óðinn; the raven eats from provided corpses; prince, because of that you can spread your dominion widely.

Mss: (171r), F(29ra), J1ˣ(102v-103r), J2ˣ(95v) (Hkr); 61(24va), 53(22ra), 54(22va), Bb(33va), Flat(31vb) (ÓT, ll. 1-4)

Readings: [1] kun: Hôkuni 53, 54, Flat    [2] runnr: runn 61, 53, 54, Bb    [3] fremra: ‘fre[…]’ J1ˣ, ‘fermra’ Flat;    und: ‘avndir’ Bb;    ferli: ‘felli’ F, Flat    [4] Ránar: ‘rannar’ Flat;    þér: ‘þr’ J1ˣ, þar 54, Bb;    mána: manna Bb, Flat    [5] ǫðlinga: ‘ꜹð[…]da’ J1ˣ    [7] af: ‘[…]’ J1ˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 141, Skj BI, 132, Skald I, 73, NN §2443A; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 356, IV, 91-2, ÍF 26, 298-9, Hkr 1991, I, 201 (ÓTHkr ch. 50), F 1871, 131; SHI 1, 246, ÓT 1958-2000, I, 238 (ch. 104), Flat 1860-8, I, 239; ÞorlJ 1883, 160-1.

Context: The stanza is cited as evidence of Hákon jarl’s noble qualities, notwithstanding the indignities visited upon his corpse and his posthumous nickname jarl inn illi ‘the bad jarl’.

Notes: [All]: The stanza is attributed to ‘Þorleifr Rauðfeldarson’ in all mss except F, which has (normalised) Svá segir Þorleifr í Rauðfeldardrápu ‘So says Þorleifr in Rauðfeldardrápa’. This title is presumably erroneous, though Stúfsdrápa ‘Stúfr’s Drápa’ (Stúfr StúfdrII) is an instance of a poem named after its author. — [1]: This line lacks skothending, but parallels exist in early poetry (and cf. st. 2/1, and Þjsk Jarl 1/1, noted by Kock in NN §2443). Emendations were suggested by Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 59) and Hjelmqvist (1890, 285-6), but neither is very convincing. — [1] Hôkun ‘Hákon’: The variant Hôkuni ‘than Hákon’ is an unmetrical secondary reading (see Hjelmqvist 1890, 286-7), perhaps arising because Hôkun, rather than þér in l. 4 (cf. þar ‘there’ 54, Bb), was taken as the dat. governed by the comp. fremra ‘more outstanding’. — [5, 8] hefr senda Óðni ‘have sent to Óðinn’: That is, killed. It has been suggested (Falk 1889a; Liberman 1978), based on a reading of Hávm 144-5, that the verb senda ‘to send’ originally meant ‘to make a (human) sacrifice’. However, ‘to send to Óðinn’ is a common skaldic expression referring to the death of warriors in battle (cf. Glúmr Gráf 2/7-8, Tindr Hákdr 11/1-2 and the poems Anon Eirm and Eyv Hákm). It is difficult in this instance to gauge whether sending to Óðinn is to be taken literally or figuratively. — [5, 8] níu ǫðlinga ‘nine nobles’: Ohlmarks (1958, 398), believing that the poem depicts the battle of Hjǫrungavágr (see Introduction), proposes a list of candidates, but it is impossible to be sure who is meant, and the number nine may be a mere formula (see LP: níu; Boberg 1966, 265). — [6]: This line appears with minor variation as Ólhelg Lv 7/2. Hást Lv 4/6IV and Þmáhl Máv 8/6V (Eb 10) are also similar, and Gade (1995a, 101) suggests all represent reworking of a stock phrase . — [7, 8] mátt ... vesa víðlendr ‘you can spread your dominion widely’: Lit. ‘you can be wide-landed’. 

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  3. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  5. Gade, Kari Ellen. 1995a. The Structure of Old Norse dróttkvætt Poetry. Islandica 49. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  6. Boberg, Inger M. 1966. Motif-Index of Early Icelandic Literature. BA 27. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
  7. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  8. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  9. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  10. Hkr 1991 = Bergljót S. Kristjánsdóttir et al., eds. 1991. Heimskringla. 3 vols. Reykjavík: Mál og menning.
  11. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  12. Jón Þorkelsson [J. Thorkelsson]. 1884. ‘Bemærkninger til nogle steder i versene i Heimskringla’. Aftryk af oversigt over det kgl. danske videnskabs selskabs forhandlinger 1884. Copenhagen: Luno.
  13. ÓT 1958-2000 = Ólafur Halldórsson, ed. 1958-2000. Saga Óláfs Tryggvasonar en mesta. 3 vols. EA A 1-3. Copenhagen: Munksgaard (Reitzel).
  14. SHI = Sveinbjörn Egilsson, ed. 1828-46. Scripta historica islandorum de rebus gestis veterum borealium, latine reddita et apparatu critico instructa, curante Societate regia antiquariorum septentrionalium. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp etc. and London: John & Arthur Arch.
  15. Falk, Hjalmar. 1889a. ‘Oldnorske ordforklaringer’. ANF 5, 111-24.
  16. Ohlmarks, Åke. 1958. Tors skalder och Vite-Krists. Trosskiftestidens isländska furstelovskalder, 980-1013. Stockholm: Geber.
  17. ÞorlJ 1883 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1883. ‘Þáttr Þorleifs’. In Guðmundur Þorláksson et al. 1880-3, III, 117-63.
  18. Hjelmqvist, Theodor. 1890. ‘Några anmærkninger till en vers i Heimskringla’. ANF 6, 285-7.
  19. Liberman, Anatoly. 1978. ‘Germanic sendan “to make a sacrifice”’. JEGP 77, 473-88.
  20. Internal references
  21. R. D. Fulk 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Eiríksmál’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1003.
  22. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Stúfr inn blindi Þórðarson kattar, Stúfsdrápa’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 350-8.
  23. Not published: do not cite ()
  24. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Glúmr Geirason, Gráfeldardrápa 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 249.
  25. Not published: do not cite (Hást Lv 4IV)
  26. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Óláfr inn helgi Haraldsson, Lausavísur 7’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 526.
  27. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorleifr jarlsskáld Rauðfeldarson, Jarlsníð 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 372.
  28. Not published: do not cite (Þmáhl Máv 8V (Eb 10))
  29. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Tindr Hallkelsson, Hákonardrápa 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 356.
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