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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Note to Hallv Knútdr 7III

[3] valdi munka ‘the ruler of monks [= God]’: Munkr is an ecclesiastical loanword in Old Norse, probably from OE munuc (ultimately from Lat. monachus) (Fischer 1909, 53). As Frank (1994b, 124 n. 60) notes, the use of munkr ‘monk’ as a determinant is very rare in skaldic verse, paralleled only by reynir munka ‘tester of monks’ in Anon Hafg 2/1IV and dróttinn munka ‘lord of monks’ in Skapti Frag 1/1, the attributed date (C10th and C11th respectively) of both of which may be doubted. The juxtaposition of pagan and Christian references (noted in the Introduction) is especially striking in this stanza.


  1. Bibliography
  2. Fischer, Frank. 1909. Die Lehnwörter des Altwestnordischen. Palaestra 85. Berlin: Mayer & Müller.
  3. Frank, Roberta. 1994b. ‘King Cnut in the Verse of his Skalds’. In Rumble 1994, 106-24.
  4. Internal references
  5. Not published: do not cite (Anon Hafg 2IV)
  6. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2017, ‘Skapti Þóroddsson, Fragment 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 356.


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