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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Note to Þjóð Yt 20I

[9] yrðr ‘fate’: The umlauted form yrðr, rather than the more common urðr, is selected here, since it is found in mss J1ˣ, J2ˣ and F, i.e. in both branches of the Hkr stemma, and must be seen as a lectio difficilior. In most translations urðr/yrðr is rendered as ‘death’, but as Kock (FF §51) notes, this is not justified in light of the usage of this word and its cognates in OIcel., OE, OHG and OS.


  1. Bibliography
  2. FF = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1922. Fornjermansk forskning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 18:1. Lund: Gleerup.
  3. Internal references
  4. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].


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