Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þjóðólfr ór Hvini (Þjóð)

9th century; volume 1; ed. Edith Marold;

1. Ynglingatal (Yt) - 37

Skj info: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski, Norsk skjald, 9 årh. (AI, 7-21, BI, 7-19).

Skj poems:
1. Ynglingatal
2. Haustlǫng
3. Et digt om Harald hårfagre, næppe ægte
4. Lausavísur

Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, or inn hvinverski, ‘from Hvinir’ (Þjóð) was a Norwegian skald of the late ninth or early tenth century. As his nickname indicates, he was from Hvinir (Kvinesdal, Vest-Agder). His biography is largely unknown. Skáldatal names him as poet to several rulers and powerful men: Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’ and Rǫgnvaldr heiðumhár or heiðumhæri ‘High with Honours’ (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261, 273), Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson (ibid., 256, 265, 280), Þorleifr inn spaki ‘the Wise’ (ibid., 259, 268, 285), Strút-Haraldr jarl (ibid., 259, 284) and an unknown Sveinn jarl (ibid., 268). However, the associations with Hákon, Strút-Haraldr and Þorleifr are uncertain since they may have lived later in the tenth century; see Bugge (1894, 145, 175); Åkerlund (1939, 7). In Hkr, both within the Prologue (ÍF 26, 4) and in HHárf (ÍF 26, 127-8, 139), Þjóðólfr is represented as skald and friend to Haraldr hárfagri and as a dedicated foster-father to Haraldr’s son Guðrøðr ljómi ‘Beam of Light’. It is in this context that he speaks the two lausavísur associated with him (Þjóð Lv 1-2). Þjóðólfr ór Hvini is the composer of the poems Ynglingatal (Þjóð Yt) and Haustlǫng (Þjóð HaustlIII, edited in SkP III). Five stanzas of a poem dedicated to Haraldr hárfagri (Þjóð Har) are also attributed to him. Several stanzas of Haraldskvæði (Þhorn Harkv) are falsely attributed to Þjóðólfr; see Introduction to Harkv. Finally, a fragment (Þjóðólfr FragIII) edited in SkP III is likely to be the work of a different Þjóðólfr, though it is tentatively associated with Þjóð Yt in Skj; see Introduction to Yt.

Ynglingatal — Þjóð YtI

Edith Marold with the assistance of Vivian Busch, Jana Krüger, Ann-Dörte Kyas and Katharina Seidel, translated from German by John Foulks 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 3.

 1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27 

for reference only:  8x   11x   13x   14x   15x   16x   17x   20x   25x   26x 

Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski: 1. Ynglingatal (AI, 7-15, BI, 7-14); stanzas (if different): 9 | 10 | 11 | 12-13 | 13 | 14 | 15-16 | 16 | 17-18 | 18 | 19-20 | 20 | 21-22 | 22 | 23-24 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27-28 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33-34 | 34 | 35-36 | 36 | 37 | 38(?)

SkP info: I, 17

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

6 — Þjóð Yt 6I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance

 

Cite as: Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 17.

Ok þess opt
of yngva hreyr
fróða menn
of fregit hafðak,
hvar Dómarr
á dynjanda
bana Hôalfs
of borinn væri.
Núk þat veit,
at verkbitinn
Fjǫlnis niðr
við Fýri brann.

Ok hafðak opt of fregit fróða menn þess of hreyr yngva, hvar Dómarr væri of borinn á {dynjanda bana Hôalfs}. Núk veit þat, at {verkbitinn niðr Fjǫlnis} brann við Fýri.

And I had often asked learned men about the burial place of the prince, where Dómarr was carried onto {the resounding slayer of Hálfr <legendary king>} [FIRE]. Now I know that {the pain-bitten descendant of Fjǫlnir <ancestor of the Ynglingar>} [= Dómarr] burned near Fyrisån.

Mss: (18v-19r), papp18ˣ(5v), 521ˣ(17-18), F(3va), J2ˣ(9v-10r), R685ˣ(11v) (Hkr); 761aˣ(56r-v)

Readings: [1] Ok: ok er 521ˣ    [2] hreyr: so J2ˣ, R685ˣ, hrør Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, 761aˣ, reyr F    [4] fregit: fregin R685ˣ;    hafðak (‘ec hafða’): ‘hafða[...]’ papp18ˣ, hafða 521ˣ, haf þat R685ˣ    [5] Dómarr: ‘domrar’ F    [7] Hôalfs: hafs F

Editions: Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski, 1. Ynglingatal 6: AI, 8, BI, 8, Skald I, 5; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 31, IV, 7-8, ÍF 26, 33, Hkr 1991, I, 18-19 (Yng ch. 16), F 1871, 12; Yng 1912, 22-3, 59, Yng 2000, 21; Yt 1914, 4, Yt 1925, 200, 220‑1.

Context: After a long reign, a time of peace and well-being for the country, King Dómarr, son of Dómaldi, succumbs to an illness and is brought to Fýrisvellir and cremated on the banks of the river. He is said to be commemorated by memorial stones (bautasteinar; on these see Holmqvist 1976).

Notes: [1]: The first line reads Ok ek þess opt in the mss, which, with four syllables rather than three, is unmetrical. Thus Sievers (1879, 294) and most subsequent eds delete ek, which is duplicated in hafðak ‘I had’, as does the present edn (see ‘Normalisation on metrical grounds’ in the General Introduction for the deletion of superfluous pronouns as part of the normalisation process). Schück (1905-10, 28-9) on the other hand dispenses with ok ‘and’, hence Ek þess opt. Nerman (Yt 1914, 122) retains the ms. reading and interprets it as as a Type A-line with resolution in metrical position 1. — [1] þess: Lit. ‘that’. The gen. sg. pron. is the object of hafðak fregit, hence lit. ‘I had often asked about that’. ‘That’ is then explained, using an alternative construction, as of hreyr yngva ‘about the burial place of the prince’. Þess could be construed grammatically with yngva, hence ‘of that prince’, but combining words from different lines in such a way would go against the stylistic practice of Yt. — [2] yngva ‘of the prince’: On the word yngvi, see Introduction. — [2] hreyr (m. acc. sg.) ‘the burial place’: The mss offer both hrør ‘corpse’ (adopted in Skj B, Hkr 1893-1901 and ÍF 26) and hreyr ‘burial place, cairn’ (adopted in Yt 1925, Skald, Hkr 1991 and this edn). Noreen (1912a, 3-5) argues convincingly that the mss’ hreyr might be an older form of OIcel. reyrr ‘cairn’, and this may also occur as a variant reading in Eyv Hál 5/6. The remainder of the stanza also favours ‘burial place, cairn’ rather than ‘corpse’, since the opening question solicits the location Fýrisvellir as its answer. — [5] Dómarr: For the first element of this name see Note to st. 5/8. The second element of the name, -arr, can be traced to *-harjaz ‘warrior’, as in Hávarr and Óttarr (Turville-Petre 1978-9, 64). — [6-7] dynjanda bana Hôalfs ‘the resounding slayer of Hálfr <legendary king> [FIRE]’: This kenning originates from the legend of Hálfr, who is burned alive inside a house along with his men (Hálf, FSGJ 2, 93-134). — [7] Hôalfs ‘of Hálfr <legendary king>’: The mss (exept F) have ‘halfs’, but for metrical reasons most eds have printed a presumed older, etymological form, Hôalfs, deriving from *Hô-alfr (Yng 1912) or Haþuwulafʀ (Noreen 1890, 315-16). The name remains bisyllabic even in later poetry, for vowel contraction was a late development which took place primarily after 1100 (see Finnur Jónsson 1921a, 261). — [9] núk veit þat ‘now I know’: Lit. ‘now I know it’. As with l. 1 (see Note), the mss contain an extra syllable, ek, which Sievers (1879, 294) eliminated by presenting it as a clitic attached to the verb, hence Nú þat veitk. Åkerlund (1939, 86) and this edn, on the other hand, treat ek as a clitic attached to the adv. . — [11] Fjǫlnis ‘of Fjǫlnir <ancestor of the Ynglingar>’: See st. 1. — [12] við Fýri ‘near Fyrisån’: The river Fyrisån, which runs through Uppsala, Sweden. The form of the name, with its long ý, was suggested by Sievers (1879, 291) and has been retained by all subsequent eds except for Noreen (Yt 1925), who reads Fyrue (normalised Fyrvi).

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