skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Steinn Óldr 2II/5 — mun ‘must’

Ungr vísi, lézt Úsu
allnær búendr falla;
sótti herr, þars hætti
hlíftrauðr konungr lífi.
Þess mun þangatkváma
þengils vesa Englum,
enn sem eptir renni,
iflaust, es þá lifðu.

Ungr vísi, lézt búendr falla allnær Úsu; herr sótti, þars hlíftrauðr konungr hætti lífi. Þangatkváma þess þengils mun iflaust vesa Englum, es þá lifðu, sem enn renni eptir.

Young ruler, you caused farmers to fall very close to the River Ouse; the army attacked where the protection-shy king risked his life. The arrival of that lord must undoubtedly appear to the English, who were then left alive, as if they are still being pursued.

grammar

Verbs: Preterite-present verbs

The present tense of these verbs is like the past tense of strong verbs, and their past tense is weak.

eigamegakunnaskulumunumuna
indic.
pres.
sing.


pl.
1st
2nd
3rd
1st
2nd
3rd
á
átt
á
eigum
eiguð
eigu

mátt

megum
meguð
megu
kann
kannt
kann
kunnum
kunnuð
kunnu
skal
skalt
skal
skulum
skuluð
skulu
mun
munt
mun
munum
munuð
munu
man
mant
man
munum
munið
muna
indic. past stem
subj. pres. stem
subj. past stem
átt-
eig-
ætt-
mátt-
meg-
mætt-
kunn-
kunn-
kynn-
skyld-
skyl-
skyld-
mund-
myn-
mynd-
mund-
mun-
mynd-
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