skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sjórs Lv 3II/1 — inn ‘the’

Skjótt bark skjǫld inn hvíta
— skald biðr, at goð valdi —
ár til eggja skúrar
ótrauðr, en frá rauðan.
Þat hefk hǫgg of hǫggvit
handvíst á Blálandi,
— goð ræðr sókn ok sigri —
svanni, þínum manni.

Ár bark ótrauðr inn hvíta skjǫld skjótt til skúrar eggja, en frá rauðan; skald biðr, at goð valdi. Þat handvíst hǫgg hefk of hǫggvit manni þínum á Blálandi, svanni; goð ræðr sókn ok sigri.

Earlier I, not unwilling, carried the white shield speedily to the shower of sword-blades [BATTLE], and [when I carried it] back [it was] red; the poet asks that God prevail. That sure blow I have struck for your husband in Africa, woman; God rules war and victory.

notes

[1] inn hvíta skjǫld ‘the white shield’: For red and white shields and their significance, see Falk 1914, 128-32. White shields seem to have been less prestigious than red shields and also a sign of peace. That Sigurðr carried a red shield when he returned from the battle not only implies that the shield had been reddened with blood, but also that he had gained honour from the fighting.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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