skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hskv Útdr 3II/1 — inn ‘the’

Suðr vátt sigr inn þriðja,
snjallr, við borg, þás kalla,
lofðungs kundr, es lenduð
Lizibón, at fróni.

Snjallr kundr lofðungs, vátt inn þriðja sigr suðr við borg, þás kalla Lizibón, es lenduð at fróni.

Courageous descendant of the sovereign, you won the third victory south near the city they call Lisbon when you came ashore.

notes

[1] vátt inn þriðja sigr ‘you won the third victory’: In the phrase vega sigr the verb vega ‘fight, attack, kill’ (vátt is 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic.) means ‘win’. Vannt inn þriðja sigr ‘you won the third victory’ (so E, Mork) is also a possible reading. If vann (3rd pers. sg. pret. indic.) ‘won’ (so J2ˣ, 42ˣ, H, Hr) is adopted, snjallr kundr lofðungs ‘courageous descendant of the sovereign’ (ll. 2, 3) is the subject of this verb and not a form of address.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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