skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hharð Lv 11II/2 — in

Hlautk af hrauðung skjóta
hlýri, mær in skýra;
súð gekk feld á flœði
framm; vas þat fyr skǫmmu.
Enn fyr England sunnan
óð borð und mér norðan;
ristin skalf í rǫstum
rǫng; en þat vas lǫngu.

Hlautk skjóta hlýri af hrauðung, in skýra mær; feld súð gekk framm á flœði; þat vas fyr skǫmmu. Enn fyr sunnan England óð borð und mér norðan; ristin rǫng skalf í rǫstum; en þat vas lǫngu.

I got to push the prow away from the empty fleet, bright lady; the jointed ship went forth on the ocean; that was recently. And, south of England, the planking advanced beneath me from the north; the carved frame shook in the currents; but that was long ago.

notes

[2] in skýra mær ‘bright lady’: No woman is present in the episode, and it is unclear whom Haraldr is addressing. For skaldic apostrophes to fictitious women, see also Úlfr Lv and Note to Hharð Gamv 3/1. Kock (NN §2026) emends mær to meir ‘more’ as an intensifier to framm ‘forth, forwards’ (l. 4) and takes in skýra ‘bright, clear’ as a qualifier to súð ‘ship-side’ (l. 3). Skj B treats both mær (taken as the adj. ‘splendid’) and in skýra as adjectives qualifying súð: in skýra, mær súð ‘the shining, splendid ship’ (det blanke, herlige skib).

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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