skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hharð Lv 1II/5 — inn ‘The’

Þora munk þann arm verja,
— þats ekkju munr nekkvat —
— rjóðum vér af reiði
rǫnd — es í hlýtk standa.
Gengra greppr inn ungi
gunnblíðr, þars slǫg ríða,
— herða menn at morði
mót — á hæl fyr spjótum.

Munk þora verja þann arm, es hlýtk standa í; þats nekkvat munr ekkju; rjóðum vér rǫnd af reiði. Inn ungi greppr gengra gunnblíðr á hæl fyr spjótum, þars slǫg ríða; menn herða mót at morði.

I shall dare to defend that rank in which I am placed; that seems to be the wish of the widow; let us redden the shield-rim with rage. The young poet shall not take to his heels, battle-cheered, before spears where weapons swing; men will intensify hostile encounters in the battle.

readings

[5] greppr inn: ‘greppínn’ 61, ‘greppr en’ Bb, ‘grepp enn’ FskAˣ, ‘greppren’ Hr

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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