skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 69VII/3 — ins ‘the’

Óláfs hǫfum jǫfra
orðhags kyni sagðar
(fylgir hugr) ins helga
happsdáðir (því ráði).
Laun fôm holl, ef hônum
(hræsíks þrimu) líkar,
gǫfugs óðar (hjalp gœðum
guðs blessan) lofs þessa.

Hǫfum sagðar kyni jǫfra happsdáðir orðhags Óláfs ins helga; fylgir hugr því ráði. Fôm holl laun gǫfugs óðar, þessa lofs, ef hônum líkar; guðs blessan, hjalp gœðum þrimu hræsíks.

We [I] have told the family of the kings the blessed deeds of eloquent Óláfr the holy; the mind supports that undertaking. We [I] shall receive a kind reward for the splendid poem, this praise, if it pleases him [Óláfr]; God’s blessing, help the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIORS].

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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