skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Bǫlv Hardr 8II/4 — it ‘the’

Leiðangr bjótt af láði
— lǫgr gekk of skip — fǫgru
— gjalfrstóðum reist grœði
glæstum — ár it næsta.
Skokkr lá dýrr á døkkri
(Danir vôru þá) bôru
— skeiðr sá herr fyr hauðri
hlaðnar — (illa staðnir).

Bjótt leiðangr af fǫgru láði it næsta ár; lǫgr gekk of skip; reist grœði glæstum gjalfrstóðum. Dýrr skokkr lá á døkkri bôru; herr sá hlaðnar skeiðr fyr hauðri; þá vôru Danir illa staðnir.

You fitted out a fleet from the fair land the next year; the sea went over the ships; you carved the ocean with the splendid surge-steeds [SHIPS]. The precious bottom-board rested on the dark wave; people saw loaded warships off the shore; then the Danes were in a bad situation.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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