skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Pl 16VII/8 — inn ‘The’

Sik bað stríða stǫðvir
stirðs, es at kom firði,
hyrlund heiðni kenndan
herleiks of sæ ferja.
Veittit fremðar flýti
flugstyggum aldyggva
fetrjóðr Fenris jóða
farning inn bǫlgjarni,

Stǫðvir stríða, es kom at firði, bað stirðs herleiks hyrlund, kenndan heiðni, ferja sik of sæ. Inn bǫlgjarni fetrjóðr jóða Fenris veittit aldyggva farning flugstyggum flýti fremðar,

The calmer of distress [HOLY MAN], when [he] came to the bay, asked the tree of the fire of harsh army-play [(lit. ‘fire-tree of harsh army-play’) BATTLE > SWORD > WARRIOR], known for paganism, to ferry them over the sea. The evil-eager paw-reddener of the offspring of Fenrir <wolf> [WOLVES > WARRIOR] did not provide reliable transportation for the flight-shy begetter of honour [HOLY MAN],

kennings

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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