skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Mdr 5VII/3 —  ‘the’

Oss þungliga þraungdum
þú hlíf, konungr vífa;
traust hafa menn mesta,
mær göfug, af þier, kærust.
Dragðu til dróttins bygða,
drottning heims og gotna,
… frá illu
aftr með þínum krafti.

Konungr vífa, hlíf þú oss þungliga þraungdum; menn hafa mesta traust af þier, göfug, kærust mær. Drottning heims og gotna, dragðu … aftr frá illu til bygða dróttins með krafti þínum.

King of women, shelter us, heavily oppressed; men have the greatest support from you, noble, dearest maiden. Queen of the world and of men [= Mary], drag … back from wickedness to the Lord’s dwellings by your power.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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