skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Mdr 10VII/2 —  ‘the’

Búið ástum ker kosta
konungs ertu glæst hæsta
smíðað bezt og bæði
byrstalls með list allri.
Þaðan flaut ilmr að ýtum
allr guðs og vel fallinn
brunnr, sá er beztr að sönnu
boðaz, eilífrar heilsu.

Ertu hæsta ker kosta konungs byrstalls, búið ástum, bæði smíðað bezt og glæst með allri list. Þaðan flaut allr ilmr guðs að ýtum og vel fallinn brunnr eilífrar heilsu, sá er boðaz beztr að sönnu.

You are the highest vessel of virtues of the king of the fair wind-pedestal [SKY/HEAVEN > GOD], equipped with love, both the best crafted and embellished with all artistry. Through you [lit. from there] flowed all the sweet perfume of God to men and the well-suited fountain of eternal salvation, the one which declares itself truly to be the best.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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