skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Líkn 18VII/5 — it ‘the’

Guðs var mær ok móðir
na hauðrs við dauða
hýr með hjarta sáru
hildings ok píningar.
Víst bar víf it hæsta
vátar kiðr af gráti,
sonr, þá er sárr af benjum
siðnenninn dó hennar.

Hýr mær ok móðir guðs var með sáru hjarta við dauða ok píningar hildings mána hauðrs. Víst bar it hæsta víf kiðr vátar af gráti, þá er hennar siðnenninn sonr dó, sárr af benjum.

The mild maiden and mother of God [= Mary] was with a sore heart at the death and torments of the king of the moon’s land [SKY/HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]. Certainly the highest woman bore cheeks wet from weeping when her virtue-striving son died, sore from wounds.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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