skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Líkn 13VII/5 — ins ‘of the’

Vilda ek vitra hölda
vegs gæti*, meinlætum,
hátt, þeim er hörðum mætti,
hvargóðum stef bjóða.
Krists vinnr krapt ins hæsta
krossmark viðum hnossa
alls bezt; lofar æztan
öll dýrð konung fyrða.

Ek vilda bjóða hátt stef hvargóðum gæti* vegs vitra hölda, þeim er mætti hörðum meinlætum. Krossmark ins hæsta Krists vinnr krapt alls bezt viðum hnossa; öll dýrð lofar æztan konung fyrða.

I would like to offer a sublime refrain to the ever-good guardian of the way of wise men [= God (= Christ)], who met with hard tribulations. The cross-sign of the most high Christ gains power best of all for trees of treasures [MEN]; all glory exalts the highest king of men [RULER = Christ].

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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