skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Kálf Kátr 49VII/2 — hin ‘the’

Kátrín bið eg, að Kálfi veiti
kvæðislaun, er hleypr hin skæða
emjandi frá efsta dómi,
öflug, ferð með svörtum djöfli.
Greini og verndi gjörðir mínar
göfug Máría sólar jöfri
giftu fyld og guðdóms krafti;
græðarinn einn er henni æðri.

Eg bið, að öflug Kátrín veiti Kálfi kvæðislaun, er hin skæða ferð hleypr emjandi með svörtum djöfli frá efsta dómi. Göfug Máría, fyld giftu og krafti guðdóms, greini og verndi gjörðir mínar jöfri sólar; græðarinn einn er æðri henni.

I ask that powerful Catherine grant Kálfur [me] payment for the poem, when the dangerous host runs howling with the black devil from the Last Judgement. May the noble Mary, full of good fortune and the power of divinity, explain and defend my deeds to the king of the sun [= God (= Christ)]; only the Saviour is higher than she.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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