skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Kálf Kátr 40VII/1 — hinn ‘the’

‘Hvern býð eg’, kvað hinn heimskugjarni,
‘hjörva lund að missa fjörvi,
veðra, hválfs að vísi heiðrar,
vella njótr, en hafnar blótum.’
Ýtar kváðuz eingla gæti
jötna róms hafa hugað að þjóna;
meiðar tóku dapran dauða
Drafnar elds í Jésú nafni.

‘Eg býð’, kvað hinn heimskugjarni, ‘að hvern lund hjörva missa fjörvi, að heiðrar vísi hválfs veðra, en hafnar blótum, njótr vella’. Ýtar róms jötna kváðuz hafa hugað að þjóna gæti eingla; meiðar elds Drafnar tóku dapran dauða í nafni Jésú.

‘I order’, spoke the stupidity-inclined one, ‘that each tree of swords [MAN] shall lose his life, who honours the king of the vault of the winds [SKY/HEAVEN > = God] and abandons sacrifices, user of gold [MAN]’. The launchers of the speech of giants [GOLD > MEN] said that they had decided to serve the guardian of angels [= God]; the trees of the fire of Dröfn <wave> [GOLD > MEN] died a sad death in the name of Jesus.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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