skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Hsv 95VII/2 — skal ‘must’

Gott ráð nema        skal gumna hverr,
        þótt kenni þý eða þræll;
ánauðgan mann        hygg ek opt vera
        frjálsum fróðara.

Hverr gumna skal nema gott ráð, þótt þý eða þræll kenni; ek hygg ánauðgan mann opt vera fróðara frjálsum.

Every person must take good advice, even if a female or male slave teaches it; I think an enslaved man is often wiser than a free one.

readings

[2] skal: skuli 624

grammar

Verbs: Preterite-present verbs

The present tense of these verbs is like the past tense of strong verbs, and their past tense is weak.

eigamegakunnaskulumunumuna
indic.
pres.
sing.


pl.
1st
2nd
3rd
1st
2nd
3rd
á
átt
á
eigum
eiguð
eigu

mátt

megum
meguð
megu
kann
kannt
kann
kunnum
kunnuð
kunnu
skal
skalt
skal
skulum
skuluð
skulu
mun
munt
mun
munum
munuð
munu
man
mant
man
munum
munið
muna
indic. past stem
subj. pres. stem
subj. past stem
átt-
eig-
ætt-
mátt-
meg-
mætt-
kunn-
kunn-
kynn-
skyld-
skyl-
skyld-
mund-
myn-
mynd-
mund-
mun-
mynd-
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