skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Heildr 12VII/3 — ins ‘of the’

Sanndyggra, mátt, seggja
snjallr huggari, kallask
harðla traust ins hæsta
heiðgjöf konungs jöfra.
Eldr ert elsku mildrar
eilífr brunnr ok heilagr
hinn er, andar sára
einsmurning, vit hreinsar.

Snjallr huggari sanndyggra seggja, mátt kallask harðla traust heiðgjöf ins hæsta konungs jöfra. Ert eldr mildrar elsku, eilífr ok heilagr brunnr, hinn er hreinsar vit, einsmurning sára andar.

Wise comforter of truly faithful men, you can be called the very trusty honour-gift of the highest king of kings [= God]. You are the fire of gracious love, the everlasting and holy spring, which purifies the conscience, the unique unction of wounds of the soul.

kennings

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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