skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þhorn Gldr 3I/3 — ins ‘of the’

Hrjóðr lét hæstrar tíðar
harðráðr skipa bǫrðum
bôru fáks ins bleika
barnungr á lǫg þrungit,
þar svát barsk at borði
(borðhǫlkvi rak norðan)
hlífar valdr til hildar
(hregg) dǫglinga tveggja.

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru lét barnungr hæstrar tíðar þrungit bǫrðum skipa á lǫg, svát valdr hlífar barsk þar at borði til hildar tveggja dǫglinga; hregg rak borðhǫlkvi norðan.

The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr], [when] child-young, had ships’ prows put out to sea at the best time, so that the owner of the shield [WARRIOR = Haraldr] travelled on board there into battle against two rulers; the storm drove the plank-horse [SHIP] from the north.

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408.

kennings

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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