skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Jór Send 2I/4 — inn ‘inn’

Harald frák, Halfdan, spyrja
herðibrǫgð, en lǫgðis
sýnisk svartleitr reyni
sjá bragr, inn hárfagra.

Halfdan, frák Harald inn hárfagra spyrja herðibrǫgð, en sjá bragr sýnisk svartleitr reyni lǫgðis.

Hálfdan, I have learned that Haraldr inn hárfagri (‘Fair-hair’) heard about [your] tough deeds, and that poem seems dark-faced to the tester of the sword [WARRIOR].

readings

[4] inn: ins 61(76ra), Tóm, 53, Flat

notes

[1, 4] Harald inn hárfagra ‘Haraldr inn hárfagri “Fair-hair”’: Earlier eds (Fms 12; Hkr 1893-1901; Skj B; Skald) read Haralds ins hárfagra, making it the deeds of King Haraldr that are heard about by Hálfdan, and Hálfdan who finds the poem svartleitr ‘dark-faced’. However, since the variant Haralds is found in only one, inferior, medieval ms. (61), it seems best to construe the text as it stands, if possible. This involves taking Halfdan as a vocative, with the poet stating to him that his father Haraldr had heard of his herðibrǫgð ‘tough deeds’. This solution is adopted with caution for, while there are a number of examples of a construction of acc. + frák ‘I have learned’ + inf., in that order (Sigv ErfÓl 7/1, 18/1, HSt Rst 28/1, ÞGísl Búdr 8/1, RvHbreiðm Hl 39/1III), in none of these does a vocative interrupt the syntax. Vocatives are also more common at the beginning of the line (e.g. Sigv Víkv 11/1, Arn Hryn 12/1II, Valg Har 7/1II), though there are parallels to this medial positioning, e.g. Bragi Rdr 1/1III, ÞjóðA Magnfl 1/1II, ESk Geisl 71/1VII. Moreover, a vocative, suggesting contemporaneity, does not sit comfortably with other indications that the poem may be a later composition. On the nickname hárfagri, see Note to l. 4.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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