skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞGísl Búdr 11I/2 — inn ‘The’

Sté fyrir húf hesti
hrófs inn þrekmesti
gœðir gunnskára;
gladdisk naðr sára.
Niðr kom bens bára;
Búi nam sér hvára
— ferð hykk friðar misstu —
frœkn í hǫnd kistu.

Inn þrekmesti gœðir gunnskára sté fyrir húf hesti hrófs; naðr sára gladdisk. Bára bens kom niðr; frœkn Búi nam kistu í hvára hǫnd sér; hykk ferð misstu friðar.

The most powerful endower of battle-gulls [RAVENS/EAGLES > WARRIOR] leapt from the hull of the horse of the boat-shed [SHIP]; the snake of wounds [SWORD] was gladdened. The wave of the wound [BLOOD] poured down; the valiant Búi took a chest in each of his hands; I think men missed out on peace.

kennings

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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