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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞGísl Búdr 3I/7 — gafsk ‘were given’

Bôru raukn rasta
rekka geðfasta
— þrǫng at rym randa —
til ræsis landa.
Við nam víðr mǫrgum
— vôpn eru grimm tǫrgum —
— nýtt gafsk nest hrǫfnum —
Nóregr skipstǫfnum.

Raukn rasta bôru geðfasta rekka til landa ræsis; þrǫng at rym randa. Víðr Nóregr nam við mǫrgum skipstǫfnum; vôpn eru grimm tǫrgum; nýtt nest gafsk hrǫfnum.

The draught animals of currents [SHIPS] carried the mind-firm warriors to the lands of the ruler [Hákon]; the clatter of shields [BATTLE] closed in. Far-reaching Norway halted many ship-prows; weapons are harsh towards targes; fresh provisions were given to ravens.

readings

[7] gafsk: so 54, Bb, gaf 61

notes

[7] gafsk ‘were given’: The m. v. form gafsk (so 54, 61) gives excellent sense and is adopted here, as in Fms 12, Skj B and Skald. The pret. indic. form gaf ‘gave’ would require a sg. and animate subject, but there is none in the helmingr (it is retained by Ólafur Halldórsson 2000).

grammar

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