skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞGísl Búdr 2I/8 — in ‘the’

Knúði hvasst harða
(hljópu marir barða)
hregg (á hefils vǫllum)
á humra fjǫllum.
Blô þó hrǫnn hlýrum;
hraut af brimdýrum
— kili skaut œst alda —
unnr in sviðkalda.

Hregg knúði harða hvasst á fjǫllum humra; marir barða hljópu á vǫllum hefils. Blô hrǫnn þó hlýrum; in sviðkalda unnr hraut af brimdýrum; œst alda skaut kili.

The storm pelted very sharply on the mountains of lobsters [SEA]; stallions of the stems [SHIPS] bounded across the plains of the clew-line [SEA]. The dark breaker washed prows; the singeing-cold billow dashed off the surf-animals [SHIPS]; the raging wave impelled the keel.

readings

[8] in: í Bb

notes

[8] in sviðkalda unnr ‘the singeing-cold billow’: This is to be preferred to the blander sjókalda ‘sea-cold’ (so 54, Bb), which appears to be a lectio facilior.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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