skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Óldr 18I/3 — it ‘the’

Firrði hjǫrr við herðar
haus; sagði frið lausan
dylgju reyr it dýra;
drósk almr fyr grams hjalmi.
Norn kom flærð at fjǫrnis
(folktjald rufu) skjaldar;
sôr frák snǫrpum dreyra
seggjum (langbarðs eggjar).

Hjǫrr firrði haus við herðar; it dýra reyr dylgju sagði frið lausan; almr drósk fyr hjalmi grams. Norn skjaldar kom at flærð fjǫrnis; eggjar langbarðs rufu folktjald; frák sôr dreyra snǫrpum seggjum.

Sword removed skull from shoulders; the precious reed of enmity [SPEAR] pronounced peace over; the bow was drawn before the lord’s helmet. The norn of the shield [AXE] came to deceit of the helmet [BATTLE]; the edges of the sword ripped the battle-tent [SHIELD]; I have heard that wounds bled on keen warriors.

kennings

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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