skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eyv Hák 21I/4 — fór ‘went’

Deyr fé,         deyja frændr,
        eyðisk land ok láð,
síz Hôkun fór         með heiðin goð;
        mǫrg es þjóð of þéuð.

Fé deyr, frændr deyja, land ok láð eyðisk, síz Hôkun fór með heiðin goð; mǫrg þjóð es of þéuð.

Livestock are dying, kinsfolk are dying, land and realm become deserted, since Hákon went with the heathen gods; many a nation is enslaved.

readings

[4] fór: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, FskBˣ, 51ˣ, 302ˣ, om. , F, 761bˣ

notes

[4] fór ‘went’: The word is here assumed (as by Boyer 1990a, 201) to belong to l. 4, producing regular Type B-lines as ll. 4, 5. Several eds place it in l. 5, and this may be possible if the verb is unstressed and the odd line hypometric, both of which are possible in ljóðaháttr (see Note to st. 1/2 and Gade 2002a, 862).

grammar

Verbs: Strong Verbs

The stem of the subjunctive pl. is i-mutation of the indicative pl..

lúka ‘shut, end’



Indicative Subjunctive


Present Past Present Past

Active voice
sing. 1
2
3
lýk
lýkr
lýkr
lauk
laukt
lauk
lúka
lúkir
lúki
lyka
lykir
lyki
pl. 1
2
3
lúkum
lúkið
lúka
lukum
lukuð
luku
lúkim
lúkið
lúki
lykim
lykið
lyki
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
lúka
lúkandi
lúkinn, lúkin, lúkit

Middle voice
sing. 1
2
3
lýkumk
lýksk
lýksk
laukumk
laukzk
lauksk
lúkumk
lúkisk
lúkisk
lykumk
lykisk
lykisk
pl. 1
2
3
lúkumk
lúkizk
lúkask
lukumk
lukuzk
lukusk
lúkimk
lúkizk
lúkisk
lykimk
lykizk
lykisk
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
lúkask
lúkandisk
lúkizk
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