skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr ErfÓl 27I/1 — mun ‘will’

Fyrr mun heimr ok himnar,
hugreifum Ôleifi,
— hann vas mennskra manna
mest gótt — í tvau bresta,
áðr an glíkr at góðu
gœðingr muni fœðask;
kœns hafi Kristr inn hreini
konungs ǫnd ofar lǫndum.

Heimr ok himnar mun fyrr bresta í tvau, áðr an gœðingr glíkr hugreifum Ôleifi at góðu muni fœðask; hann vas mest gótt mennskra manna; hafi Kristr inn hreini ǫnd kœns konungs ofar lǫndum.

Earth and heavens will sooner split in two before a chieftain equal to glad-hearted Óláfr in goodness might be born; he was the greatest good among human beings; may the pure Christ keep the soul of the wise king high above the lands.

notes

[1] mun ‘will’: As frequently, a sg. verb has a cpd subject (heimr ok himnar ‘earth and heavens’); cf., e.g., Þorm Lv 22/3, and see NS §70a. — [1, 4] heimr ok himnar mun fyrr bresta í tvau ‘earth and heavens will sooner split in two’: Further examples of adynaton or impossibilia appear both in skaldic poetry (e.g. Eyv Hák 20, 21; ÞKolb Eirdr 8/7-8; KormǪ Lv 18V, 33V, 42V (Korm 19, 52, 61);  Arn Þorfdr 24II; SnSt Ht 102III) and in eddic poetry (Vsp 57), as well as on the C11th memorial runestone at Skarpåker (SRdb Sö 154): Iarð skal rifna ok upphiminn ‘the earth and sky shall be riven’; see Heusler (1923, 181), Einar Ól. Sveinsson (1966-9, 43-51), Lönnroth (1981, 319-21), and Fidjestøl (1982, 190-3) for discussion. Arn Þorfdr 24II is clearly influenced by Hallfreðr.

grammar

Verbs: Preterite-present verbs

The present tense of these verbs is like the past tense of strong verbs, and their past tense is weak.

eigamegakunnaskulumunumuna
indic.
pres.
sing.


pl.
1st
2nd
3rd
1st
2nd
3rd
á
átt
á
eigum
eiguð
eigu

mátt

megum
meguð
megu
kann
kannt
kann
kunnum
kunnuð
kunnu
skal
skalt
skal
skulum
skuluð
skulu
mun
munt
mun
munum
munuð
munu
man
mant
man
munum
munið
muna
indic. past stem
subj. pres. stem
subj. past stem
átt-
eig-
ætt-
mátt-
meg-
mætt-
kunn-
kunn-
kynn-
skyld-
skyl-
skyld-
mund-
myn-
mynd-
mund-
mun-
mynd-
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