skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Rv Lv 5II/4 — in ‘the’

Liggja sék á leggjum
(láss bannar þér rásir)
kveldfǫrlustum karli
(Kúgi) járn in bjúgu.
Eiguð aldri, Kúgi,
— aptr munt settr af prettum —
— nauðrs at nýta eiða —
náttþing, ok halt sáttir.

Sék in bjúgu járn liggja á leggjum kveldfǫrlustum karli; Kúgi, láss bannar þér rásir. Eiguð aldri náttþing, Kúgi, ok halt sáttir; munt aptr settr af prettum; nauðrs at nýta eiða.

I see the curved irons lying on the legs of the old man who was out and about most in the evening; Kúgi, the lock prevents you from running. Never hold night-meetings, Kúgi, and keep to agreements; you will be hindered from treacherous deeds; it is necessary to keep to oaths.

notes

[4] in bjúgu járn ‘the curved irons’: This phrase seems to describe iron shackles, which usually have a semicircular shape, rather than the ‘twisted fetters’ envisaged by Bibire 1988.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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