skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arn Þorfdr 11II/3 — in ‘the’

Týndusk ból, þás brenndi
— bráskat þat dœgr háski —
— stǫkk í reyr in roknu
rauðr eldr — Skotaveldi.
Morðkennir galt mǫnnum
mein; á sumri einu
fengu þeir við þengil
þrimr sinnum hlut minna.

Ból týndusk, þás brenndi Skotaveldi; rauðr eldr stǫkk í in roknu reyr; þat dœgr bráskat háski. Morðkennir galt mǫnnum mein; á einu sumri fengu þeir þrimr sinnum minna hlut við þengil.

Dwellings perished, as he burned the Scots’ realm; red fire leapt in the smoking thatch; that day peril did not cease. The battle-master [WARRIOR] paid men for their injuries; in a single summer they got three times over the poorer deal from the ruler.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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