skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Run 3II/4 — ins ‘of the’

Jarizleifr of sá,
hvert jǫfri brá;
hófsk hlýri frams
ins helga grams.

Jarizleifr of sá, hvert jǫfri brá; hlýri ins helga, frams grams hófsk.

Jaroslav saw in what direction the prince developed; the brother of the holy, outstanding king [= Óláfr > = Haraldr] distinguished himself.

notes

[3, 4] ins helga, frams grams ‘of the holy, outstanding king’: Óláfr inn helgi Haraldsson, half-brother of Haraldr. The phrase mixes a strong adj. form (frams ‘outstanding’) with a weak one (helga ‘holy’). The strong form is justified by its position before the rest of the noun phrase, while the weak form is required after the def. art. ins.

kennings

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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