skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hrafn 19II/5 — in ‘The’

Kvöddu kappstudda
kæris Norðmæra
hölða hervalðir
hersar gunnversum.
Gekk in geðrakka
gætis hásæta
hirð at hjörstærðum
hjaldri járnfaldin.

Hervalðir hersar kæris Norðmæra kvöddu kappstudda hölða gunnversum. In geðrakka hirð gætis hásæta gekk járnfaldin at hjörstærðum hjaldri.

The host-selected hersar of the litigator of the Norðmærir [NORWEGIAN KING = Hákon] greeted the vigour-supported men with battle-verses [BATTLE]. The valiant retinue of the guardian of rowing-benches [CAPTAIN] went iron-hooded to the sword-swelled fight.

notes

[5] in geðrakka ‘the valiant’: Lit. ‘the mind-valiant’ (so 8). In gunnrakka ‘the battle-valiant’ (so F) is contextually and metrically possible but looks like a repetition of gunn- ‘battle-’ (l. 4).

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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