skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hrafn 12II/1 — inn ‘The’

Bauð inn böðfróði
bragna sigrmagnaðr
austan orrostu
optar spjót-Hroptum.
Þorðut þrekstærðan
þegnar ófegnir
bjórs við blikrýri
berjaz útverja.

Inn böðfróði sigrmagnaðr bragna austan bauð optar spjót-Hroptum orrostu. Ófegnir þegnar þorðut berjaz við þrekstærðan útverja bjórs blikrýri.

The war-crafty victory-augmenter of men [WARRIOR = Hákon] from the east often offered battle to the spear-Hroptar <= Óðinn’s> [WARRIORS]. The unhappy warriors did not dare to fight against the powerful diminisher of the flash of the beer of fishing-stations [(lit. ‘flash-diminisher of the beer of fishing-stations’) SEA > GOLD > GENEROUS MAN].

kennings

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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