skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Valg Har 5II/1 — inn ‘the’

Skauzt und farm inn frízta
— frami veitisk þér — beiti;
farðir goll ór Gǫrðum
grunlaust, Haraldr, austan.
Stýrðir hvatt í hǫrðu,
hugdyggr jǫfurr, glyggvi,
— sátt, þás sædrif létti,
Sigtún — en skip hnigðu.

Skauzt beiti und inn frízta farm; frami veitisk þér; Haraldr, farðir grunlaust goll austan ór Gǫrðum. Hugdyggr jǫfurr, stýrðir hvatt í hǫrðu glyggvi, en skip hnigðu; sátt Sigtún, þás sædrif létti.

You pushed a ship under the most splendid cargo; success is granted you; Haraldr, without a doubt you brought gold west from Russia. Loyal-minded prince, you steered vigorously in the hard storm, and the ships pitched; you sighted Sigtuna when the sea-spray eased.

readings

[1] farm inn: farmi F

notes

[1, 2] skauzt beiti und inn frízta farm ‘you pushed a ship under the most splendid cargo’: Because the prep. und ‘under’ takes the acc. here, motion is implied, and ‘you pushed a ship under the most splendid cargo’ must refer to Haraldr loading up his ship.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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