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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þjóð Yt 11I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 26.

Þjóðólfr ór HviniYnglingatal
101112

Ok varð hinn,
es Ôlfr of vá,
vǫrðr véstalls
of veginn liggja,
es dǫglingr
dreyrgan mæki
ǫfundgjarn
á Yngva rauð.
Vasa þat bært,
at Bera skyldi
valsœfendr
vígs of hvetja,
þás brœðr tveir
at bǫnum urðusk
óþurfendr
of afbrýði.

Ok {hinn vǫrðr véstalls}, es Ôlfr of vá, varð liggja of veginn, es ǫfundgjarn dǫglingr rauð dreyrgan mæki á Yngva. Þat vasa bært, at Bera skyldi of hvetja {valsœfendr} vígs, þás tveir brœðr óþurfendr urðusk at bǫnum of afbrýði.

And {that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary} [KING], whom Álfr slew, had to lie slain when the envy-ridden ruler reddened the bloody sword upon Yngvi. It was not right that Bera had to incite {the slaughterers of the slain} [WARRIORS] to fight when the two brothers needlessly became each other’s slayers out of jealousy.

Mss: (23r), papp18ˣ(6v), 521ˣ(23-24), F(4ra), J2ˣ(12r), R685ˣ(13r) (Hkr); 761aˣ(58r)

Readings: [2] of: om. F    [3] ‑stalls: ‑tjalds F, ‘‑kallz’ J2ˣ, R685ˣ    [5] dǫglingr: so papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, F, R685ˣ, dǫglingr corrected from ‘dꜹlingr’ Kˣ, dǫglingar J2ˣ, ‘daulingr’ 761aˣ    [6] mæki: mæka R685ˣ    [9] bært: beitt F    [10] at: á R685ˣ    [12] hvetja: víkja F    [13] brœðr: ‘b[...]’ J2ˣ, ‘bredr’ R685ˣ    [16] afbrýði: ‘afryði’ papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, 761aˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 10, Skj BI, 9, Skald I, 6, FF §50, NN §3201; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 39-40, IV, 12, ÍF 26, 42, Hkr 1991, I, 23-4 (Yng ch. 21), F 1871, 15; Yng 1912, 27, 61, Yng 2000, 29; Yt 1914, 7, Yt 1925, 202, 230-2.

Context: The brothers Álfr and Yngvi take over the kingship after their father Alrekr. Álfr remains in the country, while Yngvi leaves to be a viking. Yngvi is a successful, able warrior, handsome and cheerful, while Álfr is taciturn, unfriendly and conscious of his power. His wife Bera clearly prefers his brother and makes him jealous. One evening Álfr kills Yngvi with his sword, but Yngvi is able to return the blow, killing Álfr as well.

Notes: [1, 3] hinn vǫrðr véstalls ‘that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary [KING]’: In various skaldic poems, rulers are praised or blamed for protecting or destroying sanctuaries (e.g. Eyv Hák 18, Hfr Óldr 1), though the relationship of rulers to the priesthood and to sanctuaries in heathen times remains obscure (Sundqvist 2002, 176-213). Parallels to vǫrðr véstalls are found in valdr vés ‘owner of the sanctuary’ (KormǪ Sigdr 6/5III) and in wiawari ‘protector of the sanctuary’ in Swedish runic inscriptions (Rök Ög 136, Sparlösa Vg 119) (see Baetke 1964, 62; Sundqvist 2002, 198). Vǫrðr véstalls is construed in Hkr 1893-1901, IV in apposition to Ǭlfr, the subject of the subordinate clause, since Álfr is portrayed in Yng as always remaining at home. However, in this edn (as in FF §50, ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991) it is assigned to hinn ‘that’ in the main clause, referring to Yngvi, in order to preserve the integrity of the lines characteristic of Yt (see the Introduction) and because kennings rarely function as appositives. — [2] Ôlfr ‘Álfr’: This is presumed to have developed from a cpd name *Aðwolfʀ < *Aþawulfaz, arising from loss of ð (cf. ANG §228) and u-umlaut (Yt 1925). Noreen (1912b, 129; Yt 1925) and Åkerlund (1939, 91) spell it Ǭolfr, but the contracted form is indicated here. The simplex form Alfr, from the noun alfr ‘elf’ (LP: Alfr), is preferred in Hkr 1893-1901, Skj B, Skald and ÍF 26, but this is less likely since alfr is attested only as the first or last element of personal names in Swedish runic texts (cf. Peterson 2007, 19-20). — [5] dǫglingr ‘ruler’: Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV), Noreen (Yt 1925) and Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) take the word to mean an offspring of Dagr (see st. 8/1), accepting the explanation in SnE (1998, I, 103), although in LP: dǫglingr Finnur Jónsson rejects this. — [8] Yngva ‘Yngvi’: This has generally been assumed to refer to a king Yngvi, who was named after his royal house. However, with the exception of the late ǪrvOdd Ævdr 34/7VIII (Ǫrv 104), this would be the only instance of the otherwise well-attested heiti for ‘ruler’ being used as a pers. n., and it is possible that this might also be a ruler-heiti, and consequently that the pers. n. of Álfr’s brother is missing. In justifying this assumption one may adduce that in HN (2003, 76) the slain brother is called Ingjaldr, whereas the murderer goes unnamed: Cuius filius Ingialdr in Swecia a fratre suo ob infamiam uxoris eius occisus est. Que Bera dicta est ... ‘His son Ingjaldr was murdered in Sweden by his own brother because he had brought discredit on the latter’s wife, whose name was Bera ...’. — [11] valsœfendr ‘the slaughterers of the slain [WARRIORS]’: Although sœfa means ‘to slaughter’ (animals), the word is used both in prose and in poetry for the killing of enemies in battle (cf. LP, Fritzner: sœfa). Konráð Gíslason (1881, 222-4) points out that the phrase has a parallel in fella val ‘cut down the slain’ (cf. Hárb 16/6, 37/11, Sigsk 37/4, Hávm 87/4).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  6. ANG = Noreen, Adolf. 1923. Altnordische Grammatik I: Altisländische und altnorwegische Grammatik (Laut- und Flexionslehre) unter Berücksichtigung des Urnordischen. 4th edn. Halle: Niemeyer. 1st edn. 1884. 5th unrev. edn. 1970. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
  7. Fritzner = Fritzner, Johan. 1883-96. Ordbog over det gamle norske sprog. 3 vols. Kristiania (Oslo): Den norske forlagsforening. 4th edn. Rpt. 1973. Oslo etc.: Universitetsforlaget.
  8. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  9. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  10. Hkr 1991 = Bergljót S. Kristjánsdóttir et al., eds. 1991. Heimskringla. 3 vols. Reykjavík: Mál og menning.
  11. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  12. HN = Historia Norwegiæ. In MHN 69-124.
  13. Baetke, Walter. 1964. Yngvi und die Ynglinger: Eine quellenkritische Untersuchung über das nordische ‘Sakralkönigtum’. Sitzungsberichte der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Leipzig, Phil.-Hist. Kl. 109/3. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
  14. FF = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1922. Fornjermansk forskning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 18:1. Lund: Gleerup.
  15. Konráð Gíslason. 1881. ‘Nogle bemærkninger angående Ynglingatal’. ÅNOH, 185-251.
  16. Yng 2000 = Jørgensen, Jon Gunnar, ed. 2000b. Ynglinga saga etter Kringla (AM 35 fol). Series of Dissertations submitted to the Faculty of Arts, University of Oslo 80. Oslo: Unipub forlag.
  17. Yt 1914 = Grape, Anders and Birger Nerman, eds. 1914. Ynglingatal I-IV. Meddelanden från Nordiska Seminariet 3. Uppsala: Berling.
  18. Yng 1912 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912. Ynglingasaga. Copenhagen: Gad.
  19. Yt 1925 = Noreen, Adolf, ed. 1925. Ynglingatal: Text, översättning och kommentar. Stockholm: Lagerström.
  20. Noreen, Adolf. 1912b. ‘Forsök till en rekonstruktion af Ynglingatal jämte øfversättning’. In Studier tillägnade Karl Warburg på hans sextioårsdag af vänner och lärjungar. Stockholm: Norstedt, 125-35.
  21. Peterson, Lena. 2007. Nordiskt runnamnslexikon. 5th edn. Uppsala: Institutet för språk och folkminnen.
  22. Sundqvist, Olof. 2002. Freyr’s Offspring: Rulers and Religion in Ancient Svea Society. Historia religionum 21. Uppsala: Uppsala University Library.
  23. Åkerlund, Walter. 1939. Studier över Ynglingatal. Skrifta utgivna av Vetenskaps-Societeten i Lund 23. Lund: Gleerup.
  24. Internal references
  25. Edith Marold 2017, ‘Snorra Edda (Prologue, Gylfaginning, Skáldskaparmál)’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  26. Not published: do not cite (YngII)
  27. Edith Marold with the assistance of Vivian Busch, Jana Krüger, Ann-Dörte Kyas and Katharina Seidel, translated from German by John Foulks 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 3.
  28. Not published: do not cite ()
  29. Not published: do not cite ()
  30. R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Hákonarmál 18’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 191.
  31. Not published: do not cite ()
  32. Not published: do not cite ()
  33. Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Kormákr Ǫgmundarson, Sigurðardrápa 6’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 283.
  34. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Ǫrvar-Odds saga 104 (Ǫrvar-Oddr, Ævidrápa 34)’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 914.
  35. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Óláfsdrápa 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 392.
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