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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Sjóvar 2III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sjóvar heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 835.

Anonymous ÞulurSjóvar heiti
123

Sund, ǫgr, velfœrr,         sími ok víðir,
hríð, ver, breki,         húm, flóð ok brim,
grœðir, glýjuðr,         gymir ok vægir,
gniðr ok órór,         gjalfr, fen, snapi.

Sund, ǫgr, velfœrr, sími ok víðir, hríð, ver, breki, húm, flóð ok brim, grœðir, glýjuðr, gymir ok vægir, gniðr ok órór, gjalfr, fen, snapi.

Sound, inlet, easily crossable one, rope and wide one, tempest, fishing-place, breaker, dark one, flood and surf, swelling one, bright one, engulfer and wavy one, murmur and unquiet one, surge, fen, snuffling one.

Mss: R(43v), Tˣ(45r), C(12v), A(19r), B(9r), 744ˣ(72r) (SnE)

Readings: [1] Sund: ‘[…]und’ B, Sund 744ˣ;    ǫgr velfœrr: so Tˣ, ‘ø̨gr[…]r’ R, ‘ægr vel for‑’ C, ægir velfœrr A, ‘[…]ferr’ B, ‘e᷎gir velferr’ 744ˣ    [2] sími: so Tˣ, C, ‘[…]’ R, ‘sǿni’ A, ‘sam[…]’ B, ‘samm’ 744ˣ;    ok: om. Tˣ, A, B    [3] ver: verr C    [4] húm: ‘hvn’ A, ‘hi[…]’ B, ‘huín’ 744ˣ;    ok: om. Tˣ, ‘[…]’ B, ok 744ˣ    [5] grœðir: ‘groðir’ Tˣ;    glýjuðr: ‘glioðr’ Tˣ, C, ‘ok glýro᷎dr’ B    [6] gymir: ‘gvmir’ A;    ok: om. C;    vægir: so C, A, ‘veg[…]’ R, vegir Tˣ, B    [7] gniðr: ‘g[…]’ B, ‘g....’ 744ˣ;    ok: om. Tˣ;    órór: ‘vrorr’ C, ‘[...]’ B, ‘or. .’ 744ˣ    [8] gjalfr: ‘[…]ialfr’ B, ‘gíalfr’ 744ˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 668, Skj BI, 666, Skald I, 330; SnE 1848-87, I, 574, II, 479, 562, 622, SnE 1931, 205, SnE 1998, I, 124.

Notes: [1] velfœrr (m.) ‘easily crossable one’: A hap. leg. This is possibly a euphemism for ‘sea’ (SnE 1998, II, 424), which derives from calling the sea ‘easily crossable’ when it is difficult or dangerous to cross. — [2] sími (m.) ‘rope’: So Skj B. This reading is found only in mss and C (the latter has forsími). This is a peculiar heiti for ‘sea’, but it could refer to the image of the ocean encircling the earth like a girdle or belt. See also ESk Lv 8-9, 14-15. — [2] víðir (m.) ‘wide one’: Also listed in Þul Hesta 2/7. — [3] hríð (f.) ‘tempest’: See also Þul Á 6/2 and Þul Orrostu 2/7. — [3] ver (n.) ‘fishing-place’: See Kuhn (1941, 107-8). Also listed among Sævar heiti in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 92); cf. OE wær ‘sea’ (< Gmc *waza-(?)). — [4] húm (n.) ‘dark one’: As a term for ‘sea’ the word is found only in poetry, otherwise the meaning is ‘dusk, twilight’. See Anon (MH) l. 1II. Faulkes (SnE 1998, I, 94) gives the m. form húmr. — [5] glýjuðr (m.) ‘bright one’: Or ‘glad one’. Cf. the adj. glýjaðr ‘glad’ (p. p. of the weak verb glýja ‘be cheerful’), glý f. ‘glee, happiness’. For the meaning ‘bright’, see AEW: glýjuðr as well as glýja f. ‘dazzling from brightness’ and glýra f. ‘glitter’. Not otherwise attested as a heiti for ‘sea’. — [6] gymir (m.) ‘engulfer’: A poetic word for ‘sea’ and another name for Ægir, the sea-giant (see Note to Þul Jǫtna I 1/8). — [6] vægir (m.) ‘wavy one’: The word does not otherwise occur as a sea-heiti. According to AEW: vægir 1, it is derived from the weak verb vægja ‘flow, suppurate’, or possibly from vágr m. ‘sea’ (so ÍO: vægir). Vægir ‘wavy one’ is also listed among the sword-heiti (see Note to Þul Sverða 4/1), but it is not clear whether this is a different word. — [7] gniðr ok órór ‘murmur and unquiet one’: Neither heiti is found elsewhere as a sea-name (gniðr, niðr m. means ‘murmur of running water’; cf. also gnauð f. ‘noise’). — [8] snapi (m.) ‘snuffling one’: A hap. leg. This is a neologism derived from the weak verb snapa ‘snuffle’. It could also be that the sense of this heiti is ‘one searching for food’.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  4. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  6. ÍO = Ásgeir Blöndal Magnússon. 1989. Íslensk orðsifjabók. Reykjavík: Orðabók Háskólans.
  7. SnE 1931 = Snorri Sturluson. 1931. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar. Ed. Finnur Jónsson. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
  8. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  9. Kuhn, Hans (1899). 1941. ‘Hadbarden und Hadraumer’. NoB 29, 84-116.
  10. Internal references
  11. (forthcoming), ‘ Snorri Sturluson, Skáldskaparmál’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=112> (accessed 28 September 2021)
  12. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Orrostu heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 788.
  13. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 796.
  14. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Hesta heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 936.
  15. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Á heiti 6’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 850.
  16. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Lausavísur 8’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 171.
  17. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘ Anonymous, Lausavísa from Magnúss saga góða ok Haralds harðráða’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 813-14. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=3086> (accessed 28 September 2021)
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