Cookies on our website

We use cookies on this website, mainly to provide a secure browsing experience but also to collect statistics on how the website is used. You can find out more about the cookies we set, the information we store and how we use it on the cookies page.

Continue

skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Þul Hauks 2III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Hauks heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 943.

Anonymous ÞulurHauks heiti
12

Yrlygr, ymir,         undskornir, valr,
ifjungr, ifli,         ifill, Veðrfǫlnir,
forseti, viðnir,         fjǫrsungr, þrǫmmungr,
olgr, mútari,         ǫglir, sauðnir.

Yrlygr, ymir, undskornir, valr, ifjungr, ifli, ifill, Veðrfǫlnir, forseti, viðnir, fjǫrsungr, þrǫmmungr, olgr, mútari, ǫglir, sauðnir.

Fighter, clamourer, wound-cleaver, falcon, hooded one, blindfolded one, bound one, Veðrfǫlnir, watchful one, forest-dweller, spotted one, lumbering one, noise-maker, moulted one, ǫglir, one suffering from heat.

Mss: A(20v), B(9v), 744ˣ(87v) (SnE)

Readings: [3] ifjungr: ‘jf[…]unngr’ B, ‘j́fiunngr’ 744ˣ;    ifli: ‘fill’ B    [4] ifill Veðrfǫlnir: ‘[…]fo᷎lnir’ B, ‘vẹð̣rfo᷎lnir’ 744ˣ    [6] þrǫmmungr: ‘[…]ro᷎mmungr’ B, ‘þro᷎mmungr’ 744ˣ    [7] olgr: so B, ‘ǫlgr’ A

Editions: Skj AI, 686, Skj BI, 676, Skald I, 340; SnE 1848-87, II, 488, 571.

Notes: [1] yrlygr (m.) ‘fighter’: Spelled ørlygr in Skj B and Skald. See Note to Þul Skjaldar 3/1. — [1] ymir (m.) ‘clamourer’: As a hawk-heiti, the word occurs only in this list. Most likely it is an agent noun from the weak verb ymja ‘whine, cry’. Alternatively, it could be connected with the name of the cosmic giant Ymir (see Note to Þul Jǫtna I 1/3). — [2] undskornir (m.) ‘wound-cleaver’: The first element in this cpd name is und f. ‘wound’ and the second component is derived from the strong verb skera ‘cut’. Thus the heiti refers to a bird of prey. In Skm (SnE 1998, I, 92), this word is mentioned among the heiti for ‘eagle’, but it is not found in poetry. — [3-4] ifjungr, ifli, ifill ‘hooded one, blindfolded one, bound one’: All these heiti are supposedly related to ifingr m. ‘cap, (head) bandage’ and they probably refer to a tame bird kept blindfolded or under a hood (Falk 1925a, 242-3). Of the three words only ifli m. ‘blindfolded one’ occurs as a poetic term for ‘hawk’ (cf. LP: ifli). Ifjungr m. ‘hooded one’ is also listed in Þul Bjarnar l. 12, but ifill m. is a hap. leg. Owing to the successive arrangement of the cognate words, the alliteration in ll. 3-4 is irregular. — [4] Veðrfǫlnir: Lit. ‘one growing pale in the storm’ (from veðr n. ‘storm, wind’ and the weak verb fǫlna ‘grow pale’). According to Gylf (SnE 2005, 18), this is the name of a mythical hawk sitting between the eyes of a wise eagle that lives in the branches of the ash Yggdrasill. The name does not appear in poetry. — [5] forseti (m.) ‘watchful one’: Perhaps lit. ‘one being on guard’ or ‘one preparing an ambush’ (cf. sitja fyrir ‘lie in wait for’). If so, this is a characterising heiti (see Gurevich 1992c, 44-6). Alternatively, the hawk-heiti could have been derived from the name of a heathen deity, Baldr’s son Forseti (see Þul Ása II 9), but there is no evidence for a connection between that god and a hawk. As a hawk-heiti the word does not occur elsewhere. — [5] viðnir (m.) ‘forest-dweller’: See Note to Þul Orma 4/3. — [6] fjǫrsungr (m.) ‘spotted one’: This heiti could be a name for a spotted falcon, the Peregrine falcon (cf. the French term for that bird, faucon madré, and ModEngl. spotted falcon, a rare name for the Peregrine falcon; see Falk 1925a, 241). The word is not found elsewhere as a heiti for ‘hawk’, but see fjǫrsungr ‘weever’ (Þul Fiska 3/1). — [6] þrǫmmungr (m.) ‘lumbering one’: The name is derived from the weak verb þramma ‘lumber along, walk heavily’ (cf. Falk 1925a, 245: ungestüm dringen ‘press on impetuously’). The heiti is not found as a poetic term for ‘hawk’, but along with the previous word it is listed in Þul Fiska 3/1: Fjǫrsungr, þrǫmmungr ‘Weever, mailed sculpin’ (see Note there). It seems that both words were transferred to the þula of hawk-heiti by mistake. — [7] olgr (m.) ‘noise-maker’: See Note to Þul Elds 3/1. This word is otherwise not used in poetry as a heiti for ‘hawk’. — [7] mútari (m.) ‘moulted one’: This is a poetic word for ‘falcon’ or ‘hawk’ (also attested in the form múterir in Sigv Berv 10/7II), originally a bird that has moulted (cf. p. p. mútaðr). It is a loan from Lat. mutarius (cf. MHG mūzære ‘gerfalcon’; AEW: mútari). — [8] ǫglir (m.): The heiti is a poetic term for ‘falcon’ or ‘hawk’ (cf. the preceding word), but the derivation and meaning of the word are unclear. According to Falk (1925a, 245), ǫglir is possibly derived from *aguljan ‘have an aversion to’ (cf. New Norw. igla, ModSwed. dialects ögläs ‘have an aversion to’), and may denote a sick bird of prey that loathes food. Alternatively, ǫglir has been explained as a loanword (cf. French aigle < Lat. aquila ‘eagle’, cf. ME egle, ModEngl. eagle; so Suolahti 1909, 345), while ÍO: öglir, øglir, ǫglir suggests that this heiti might be connected with ModIcel. aga ‘flow, run’. — [8] sauðnir (m.) ‘one suffering from heat’: The word could have been derived from the strong verb sjóða ‘cook’ (cf. ModIcel. seyða ‘boil, simmer’) and, if so, related to New Norw. søyda ‘languid because of heat’ (see Falk 1925a, 244). The heiti occurs only once, in C14th skaldic verse (EGils Guðkv 1/6IV), which possibly indicates that it was taken from a learned source, perhaps from the þulur.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  4. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  6. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  7. Gurevich, Elena A. 1992c. ‘Þulur in Skáldskaparmál: An Attempt at Skaldic Lexicology’. ANF 107, 35-52.
  8. ÍO = Ásgeir Blöndal Magnússon. 1989. Íslensk orðsifjabók. Reykjavík: Orðabók Háskólans.
  9. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  10. SnE 2005 = Snorri Sturluson. 2005. Edda: Prologue and Gylfaginning. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2nd edn. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  11. Falk, Hjalmar. 1925a. ‘Die altnordischen Namen der Beizvögel’. In Germanica: Eduard Sievers zum 75. Geburtstage 25. November 1925. Halle (Saale): Niemeyer, 236-46.
  12. Suolahti, Hugo. 1909. Die deutschen Vogelnamen: Eine wortgeschichtliche Untersuchung. Strassburg: Trübner.
  13. Internal references
  14. (forthcoming), ‘ Snorri Sturluson, Skáldskaparmál’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=112> (accessed 21 September 2021)
  15. (forthcoming), ‘ Snorri Sturluson, Gylfaginning’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=113> (accessed 21 September 2021)
  16. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Jǫtna heiti I 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 707.
  17. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Elds heiti 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 924.
  18. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Orma heiti 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 933.
  19. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Skjaldar heiti 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 826.
  20. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Fiska heiti 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 855.
  21. Not published: do not cite (EGils Guðkv 1IV)
  22. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘ Anonymous, Ása heiti II’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 760. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=3189> (accessed 21 September 2021)
  23. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘ Anonymous, Bjarnar heiti’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 895. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=3213> (accessed 21 September 2021)
  24. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Bersǫglisvísur 10’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 21-2.
Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.