Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Hauks heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 943.
Yrlygr, ymir, undskornir, valr,
ifjungr, ifli, ifill, Veðrfǫlnir,
forseti, viðnir, fjǫrsungr, þrǫmmungr,
olgr, mútari, ǫglir, sauðnir.
Yrlygr, ymir, undskornir, valr, ifjungr, ifli, ifill, Veðrfǫlnir, forseti, viðnir, fjǫrsungr, þrǫmmungr, olgr, mútari, ǫglir, sauðnir.
Fighter, clamourer, wound-cleaver, falcon, hooded one, blindfolded one, bound one, Veðrfǫlnir, watchful one, forest-dweller, spotted one, lumbering one, noise-maker, moulted one, ǫglir, one suffering from heat.
Mss: A(20v), B(9v), 744ˣ(87v) (SnE)
Readings:  ifjungr: ‘jf[…]unngr’ B, ‘j́fiunngr’ 744ˣ; ifli: ‘fill’ B  ifill Veðrfǫlnir: ‘[…]fo᷎lnir’ B, ‘vẹð̣rfo᷎lnir’ 744ˣ  þrǫmmungr: ‘[…]ro᷎mmungr’ B, ‘þro᷎mmungr’ 744ˣ  olgr: so B, ‘ǫlgr’ A
Notes:  yrlygr (m.) ‘fighter’: Spelled ørlygr in Skj B and Skald. See Note to Þul Skjaldar 3/1. —  ymir (m.) ‘clamourer’: As a hawk-heiti, the word occurs only in this list. Most likely it is an agent noun from the weak verb ymja ‘whine, cry’. Alternatively, it could be connected with the name of the cosmic giant Ymir (see Note to Þul Jǫtna I 1/3). —  undskornir (m.) ‘wound-cleaver’: The first element in this cpd name is und f. ‘wound’ and the second component is derived from the strong verb skera ‘cut’. Thus the heiti refers to a bird of prey. In Skm (SnE 1998, I, 92), this word is mentioned among the heiti for ‘eagle’, but it is not found in poetry. — [3-4] ifjungr, ifli, ifill ‘hooded one, blindfolded one, bound one’: All these heiti are supposedly related to ifingr m. ‘cap, (head) bandage’ and they probably refer to a tame bird kept blindfolded or under a hood (Falk 1925a, 242-3). Of the three words only ifli m. ‘blindfolded one’ occurs as a poetic term for ‘hawk’ (cf. LP: ifli). Ifjungr m. ‘hooded one’ is also listed in Þul Bjarnar l. 12, but ifill m. is a hap. leg. Owing to the successive arrangement of the cognate words, the alliteration in ll. 3-4 is irregular. —  Veðrfǫlnir: Lit. ‘one growing pale in the storm’ (from veðr n. ‘storm, wind’ and the weak verb fǫlna ‘grow pale’). According to Gylf (SnE 2005, 18), this is the name of a mythical hawk sitting between the eyes of a wise eagle that lives in the branches of the ash Yggdrasill. The name does not appear in poetry. —  forseti (m.) ‘watchful one’: Perhaps lit. ‘one being on guard’ or ‘one preparing an ambush’ (cf. sitja fyrir ‘lie in wait for’). If so, this is a characterising heiti (see Gurevich 1992c, 44-6). Alternatively, the hawk-heiti could have been derived from the name of a heathen deity, Baldr’s son Forseti (see Þul Ása II 9), but there is no evidence for a connection between that god and a hawk. As a hawk-heiti the word does not occur elsewhere. —  viðnir (m.) ‘forest-dweller’: See Note to Þul Orma 4/3. —  fjǫrsungr (m.) ‘spotted one’: This heiti could be a name for a spotted falcon, the Peregrine falcon (cf. the French term for that bird, faucon madré, and ModEngl. spotted falcon, a rare name for the Peregrine falcon; see Falk 1925a, 241). The word is not found elsewhere as a heiti for ‘hawk’, but see fjǫrsungr ‘weever’ (Þul Fiska 3/1). —  þrǫmmungr (m.) ‘lumbering one’: The name is derived from the weak verb þramma ‘lumber along, walk heavily’ (cf. Falk 1925a, 245: ungestüm dringen ‘press on impetuously’). The heiti is not found as a poetic term for ‘hawk’, but along with the previous word it is listed in Þul Fiska 3/1: Fjǫrsungr, þrǫmmungr ‘Weever, mailed sculpin’ (see Note there). It seems that both words were transferred to the þula of hawk-heiti by mistake. —  olgr (m.) ‘noise-maker’: See Note to Þul Elds 3/1. This word is otherwise not used in poetry as a heiti for ‘hawk’. —  mútari (m.) ‘moulted one’: This is a poetic word for ‘falcon’ or ‘hawk’ (also attested in the form múterir in Sigv Berv 10/7II), originally a bird that has moulted (cf. p. p. mútaðr). It is a loan from Lat. mutarius (cf. MHG mūzære ‘gerfalcon’; AEW: mútari). —  ǫglir (m.): The heiti is a poetic term for ‘falcon’ or ‘hawk’ (cf. the preceding word), but the derivation and meaning of the word are unclear. According to Falk (1925a, 245), ǫglir is possibly derived from *aguljan ‘have an aversion to’ (cf. New Norw. igla, ModSwed. dialects ögläs ‘have an aversion to’), and may denote a sick bird of prey that loathes food. Alternatively, ǫglir has been explained as a loanword (cf. French aigle < Lat. aquila ‘eagle’, cf. ME egle, ModEngl. eagle; so Suolahti 1909, 345), while ÍO: öglir, øglir, ǫglir suggests that this heiti might be connected with ModIcel. aga ‘flow, run’. —  sauðnir (m.) ‘one suffering from heat’: The word could have been derived from the strong verb sjóða ‘cook’ (cf. ModIcel. seyða ‘boil, simmer’) and, if so, related to New Norw. søyda ‘languid because of heat’ (see Falk 1925a, 244). The heiti occurs only once, in C14th skaldic verse (EGils Guðkv 1/6IV), which possibly indicates that it was taken from a learned source, perhaps from the þulur.
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