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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Hesta 1III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Hesta heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 935.

Anonymous ÞulurHesta heiti
12

Glaðr, Glær, Gyllir,         Gullinfaxi,
glitnir, Gulltoppr,         Gísl, Skeiðbrimir,
Silfrtoppr, Sinir,         Sleipnir, Skævaðr,
Goti, Skinfaxi,         Grani, Stúfr ok skær.

Glaðr, Glær, Gyllir, Gullinfaxi, glitnir, Gulltoppr, Gísl, Skeiðbrimir, Silfrtoppr, Sinir, Sleipnir, Skævaðr, Goti, Skinfaxi, Grani, Stúfr ok skær.

Glaðr, Glær, Gyllir, Gullinfaxi, shining one, Gulltoppr, Gísl, Skeiðbrimir, Silfrtoppr, Sinir, Sleipnir, Skævaðr, Goti, Skinfaxi, Grani, Stúfr and sprinter.

Mss: A(20v), B(9v), 744ˣ(86r-v) (SnE)

Readings: [1] Glaðr: ‘[…]ladr’ B, ‘Gladr’ 744ˣ;    Glær: ‘g[…]r’ B, ‘glér’ 744ˣ;    Gyllir: ‘g[…]ller’ B, ‘gellerr’ 744ˣ    [3] glitnir: ‘gli[…]n[…]’ B, ‘glítnir’ 744ˣ    [4] Gísl: ‘gi[…]’ B, ‘gill’ 744ˣ    [5] Sinir: ‘simir’ A, ‘símir’ B    [6] Skævaðr: ‘skæyvðr’ A, ‘sl[…] vo᷎dr’ B, ‘slevo᷎dr’ 744ˣ    [7] Skin‑: ‘[…]ín’ B, skin‑ 744ˣ    [8] skær: ‘s[…]r’ B, ‘ske᷎rr’ 744ˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 685, Skj BI, 675, Skald I, 340, NN §2157C; SnE 1848-87, II, 487, 571.

Notes: [1-4]: Four of the horse-names from this helmingr are also listed in Grí 30/1-2 (NK 63): Glaðr oc Gyllir, | Glær oc Sceiðbrimir ‘Glaðr and Gyllir, Glær and Skeiðbrimir’. — [1] Glaðr: Lit. ‘glad one, bright one’ (cf. the adj. glaðr ‘glad, happy, bright’). One of the mythical horses that pulls the Day and hence a poetic term for ‘horse’ in general. According to Skm (SnE 1998, I, 90), Skinfaxi eða Glaðr <fylgja deginum> ‘Skinfaxi or Glaðr accompany the day’. Faulkes (SnE 1998, I, 211 n.) argues that the plural form of the verb fylgja ‘accompany, follow’ indicates that the two names are not alternative names for the same horse but rather refer to a pair of horses that pull alternate days (see also sts 2/2, 3/3, 4 and 4/8 below). — [1] Glær: Lit. ‘bright one’ (adj., m.). See Note to Anon Þorgþ I 3/5. — [1] Gyllir: Lit. ‘gilder’ or ‘golden one’. See Note to Anon Þorgþ I 3/6. — [2] Gullinfaxi: The name translates as ‘golden-maned one’ and is a variant of Gullfaxi (see Anon Þorgþ I 2/6 and Note there). — [3] glitnir (m.) ‘shining one’: This is also the name of the mythical golden hall of the god Forseti (Grí 15/1; Gylf, SnE 2005, 19, 26). As a horse-heiti, the word occurs in Þjóð Yt 7/3I (see Note there). Cf. also vígglitnir ‘war-glittering one’ (st. 2/5 below). — [3] Gulltoppr: Lit. ‘gold-forelock’. See Note to Anon Þorgþ I 1/5. — [4] Gísl: The name means ‘gleaming one’. See Note to Anon Þorgþ I 3/4. — [4] Skeiðbrimir: See Note to Anon Þorgþ I 3/5. — [5] Silfrtoppr, Sinir: These names mean ‘silver-forelock’ and ‘sinewy one’, respectively. In the mss, the second name is given as simir, perhaps owing to confusion with the ox-heiti simi, simir (see Þul Øxna 1/5, 2/1). Cf. the same pair of names in Anon Þorgþ I 2/4 (on the emended reading sinir, see Note there). — [6] Sleipnir: See Note to Anon Þorgþ I 1/1.  — [6] Skævaðr: Lit. ‘racer’ (m.). In the mss, this heiti appears as ‘skæẏvðr’ (A) and ‘slevo᷎dr’ (B, represented by 744ˣ). The present emendation is in keeping with Anon Þorgþ I 2/2 (see Note there). In poetry, the word is a heiti for ‘horse’ in general. — [7] Goti: See Note to Anon Þorgþ I 1/5. — [7] Skinfaxi: Lit. ‘shining-maned one’ (m.). One of the horses that pull the Day (Vafþr 12/1; SnE 1998, I, 90). See Note to Glaðr (st. 1/1). The name is also given in st. 4/7 below but does not otherwise occur in skaldic verse. — [8] Grani: See Note to Anon Kálfv 4/8. — [8] Stúfr: Lit. ‘stump’ (m.). See Note to Anon Þorgþ I 2/1. The name does not otherwise appear in skaldic poetry as a heiti for ‘horse’, but it occurs frequently in kennings in the rímur (Finnur Jónsson 1926-8: stúfr). — [8] skær (m.) ‘sprinter’: An agent noun from the weak verb skæva ‘hurry’; cf. Skævaðr (l. 6 above) and Note to Anon Þorgþ I 2/2. The horse-heiti skær is frequently used in kennings for ‘ship’ and ‘wolf’ (LP: skær).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  3. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  6. Finnur Jónsson. 1926-8. Ordbog til de af samfund til udg. af gml. nord. litteratur udgivne Rímur samt til de af Dr. O. Jiriczek udgivne Bósarímur. SUGNL 51. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  7. NK = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1983. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. I: Text. 5th edn. Heidelberg: Winter.
  8. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  9. SnE 2005 = Snorri Sturluson. 2005. Edda: Prologue and Gylfaginning. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2nd edn. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  10. Internal references
  11. (forthcoming), ‘ Snorri Sturluson, Skáldskaparmál’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=112> (accessed 17 September 2021)
  12. (forthcoming), ‘ Snorri Sturluson, Gylfaginning’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=113> (accessed 17 September 2021)
  13. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Þorgrímsþula I 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 670.
  14. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Þorgrímsþula I 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 672.
  15. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Þorgrímsþula I 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 674.
  16. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Kálfsvísa 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 668.
  17. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Øxna heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 885.
  18. Not published: do not cite ()
  19. Not published: do not cite ()
  20. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 7’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 19.
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