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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Óðins 8III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Óðins nǫfn 8’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 751.

Anonymous ÞulurÓðins nǫfn
78

Sigtryggr, Jǫrmunr,         Saðr, Gunnblindi,
Jafnhár, Óski,         Jǫlfǫðr ok Þrór,
Ýrungr, Skilfingr,         Óðinn, Tveggi,
Veratýr, Sigþrór,         Valgautr ok Yggr.

Sigtryggr, Jǫrmunr, Saðr, Gunnblindi, Jafnhár, Óski, Jǫlfǫðr ok Þrór, Ýrungr, Skilfingr, Óðinn, Tveggi, Veratýr, Sigþrór, Valgautr ok Yggr.

Sigtryggr, Jǫrmunr, Saðr, Gunnblindi, Jafnhár, Óski, Jǫlfǫðr and Þrór, Ýrungr, Skilfingr, Óðinn, Tveggi, Veratýr, Sigþrór, Valgautr and Yggr.

Mss: A(18r), B(8r), 744ˣ(61r-v) (SnE)

Readings: [1] Jǫrmunr: jǫrundr B    [4] Jǫl‑: jól‑ B    [5] Ýrungr: so B, ‘yivngr’ A

Editions: Skj AI, 682, Skj BI, 673, Skald I, 337-8; SnE 1848-87, II, 473, 556.

Notes: [1] Sigtryggr: Lit. ‘battle-faithful one’ or ‘victory-faithful one’. The name of several legendary kings (cf. Hyndl 15/3, Ættartölur, Flat 1860-8, I, 24 and Af Upplendinga konungum, FSN II, 104). As the name of the god, it occurs only in this þula (it is omitted in LaufE). See also Sigfǫðr, Siggautr, Sigðir and Sigmundr (sts 4/4, 6/2, 4, 5), as well as Sigþrór (l. 7 below). The second element of the cpd is the adj. tryggr ‘faithful, trustworthy, safe’. — [1] Jǫrmunr: So A and the LaufE mss. The name means ‘mighty one’. As an Óðinn-heiti this name is not attested in other Old Norse sources. Jǫrmunr is derived from Gmc *ermunaz ‘powerful, great’ (AEW: Jǫrmunr). See also jǫrmun- ‘great’ as the first element in various compounds and jǫrmuni ‘mighty one’, a heiti for ‘horse’ and ‘ox’ (Þul Hesta 3/8, Þul Øxna 2/7). Ms. B has Jǫrundr (cf. jara f. ‘battle’), which is known from Þjóð Yt 12/1I and Yng (ch. 24, ÍF 26, 46) as the name of a son of King Yngvi. Jǫrundr was hanged, i.e. sacrificed to Óðinn (Falk 1924, 21). — [2] Saðr: Or Sannr, lit. ‘true one’ (adj.). The name may refer to Óðinn’s actual appearance; contrast the meaning of Svipall ‘changeable one’ (st. 3/2). These names are mentioned side by side in Grí 47/1 (NK 66: Saðr oc Svipall). — [2] Gunnblindi: A hap. leg. This name means ‘one who makes (his enemies) blind in battle’ (from gunnr f. ‘battle’ and the adj. blindr ‘blind’; see Note to Herblindi, st. 5/1 above). — [3] Jafnhár: Lit. ‘equally high one’. As an Óðinn-heiti, the name occurs only in Grí 49/9 and in Gylf (passim), where it belongs to one of Gylfi’s informants. The name is a late formation, denoting the second member of the heathen trinity. See Þriði (st. 5/4), and the Old High German epithet for Christ, ebenhēr, where ‑hēr means ‘delightful, distinguished’ (Falk 1924, 20). — [3] Óski: The name most likely denotes one who is carrying out somebody’s wishes (‘the god Wish’, CVC: Óski), from the noun ósk f. ‘wish’ (cf. the Old English pers. n. Wūscfrea ‘wish-woman’). According to Falk (1924, 24), this heiti refers to Óðinn’s relations with his ‘chosen’ (óskasonr, óskmǫgr ‘foster-son’; óskmær ‘chosen maiden’, i.e. valkyrie). Other than in the present stanza the name is found only in Grí 49/8, where Óski is also found close to Jafnhár, but it is also used as an Óðinn-name in the rímur (Finnur Jónsson 1926-8: Óski). — [4] Jǫlfǫðr: So A. Ms. B has Jólfǫðr, which may have been influenced by Jólnir in st. 7/5 (see Note there). This name is not mentioned in the list in Grí, but it occurs in skaldic verse, although in forms which differ from those of the þulur, namely, Jálfaðr (cf. Jalfaðar in Gsind Hákdr 1/6I) or Jǫlfuðr (Þorm Lv 23/6V (Fbr 38), Grett Lv 13/2V (Gr 26)). The latter form is adopted in Skj B and Skald for the present stanza as well. The origin and meaning of this name are uncertain, perhaps from jálfr m. and jálmr m. ‘noise, bustle’ (cf. ÍO: Jálfaður 2). See also other Óðinn-names in the present list with the second element ‑fǫðr, whose influence may have caused the change Jǫlfuðr > Jǫlfǫðr. According to Falk (1924, 21, 41), Jǫlfuðr, Jálfaðr as an Óðinn-name is identical with the bear-heiti jálfuðr (see Þul Bjarnar l. 11 and Note there), and he believes that the name was most likely transferred from the animal to the god. There is no direct evidence that Óðinn ever took the shape of a bear, however (see Note to Hrami, st. 4/5 above). — [4] Þrór: Lit. ‘thriver’, which can be connected with the weak verb þróask ‘grow, thrive’ (cf. þroski m. ‘maturity’). Falk (1924, 30-1) suggests that, because the name is a heiti for ‘boar’ (Þul Galtar l. 7) as well, it could originally have been the name of the god of fertility, Freyr (see Note to Þjóð Yt 26/3I). If that is correct, this is one of the names of other gods that was transferred to Óðinn (cf. Fjǫlnir, st. 2/1). In Grí 49/6 (NK 67) it is said that Óðinn took this name at public assemblies (Þrór þingum at ‘Þrór when at legal assemblies’), hence it might be interpreted as ‘one who has the power over legal assemblies’ (so Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1902, 195). Falk (1924, 30-1) notes, however, that Óðinn is not otherwise known as a protector at public assemblies, and he proposes that Þrór þingum at may mean ‘[I am called] pleasant in love-affairs’ (on this meaning of þing, see LP: þing 4). For another suggested interpretation of Þrór as ‘attacker’, see Höfler (1952b, 99). This Óðinn heiti is used in skaldic poetry (LP: Þrór 1), and it is also listed as a heiti for ‘dwarf’ (Þul Dverga 4/5; see Note there) and ‘sword’ (Þul Sverða 3/5). — [5] Ýrungr: So B and the LaufE mss. Ms. A has ‘yivngr’ (adopted in Skj B and Skald as Ýjungr). That word may be a corrupt form of Yggjungr (cf. Yggr in l. 8 below) or related to ModIcel. ýja in ýja ‘mention, talk about’ (see ÍO: Ýjung(u)r). Falk (1924, 34) argues that the correct form is Ýrungr, which he takes as a variant of Ýringr, cognate with OHG Īring, a South Germanic legendary hero. It is also possible, however, that Ýrungr is unrelated to the name Īring; rather, it may be connected with ModNorw., ModSwed. yr ‘wild, violent’ (see AEW: Ýrungr). — [5] Skilfingr: The name means ‘descendant of Skelfir’, originally the name of the legendary ancestor of the Ynglingar (see Note to Þjóð Yt 14/14I), and as an Óðinn-heiti it also appears in Grí 54/4 and Gylf (SnE 2005, 22) as well as in the rímur (Finnur Jónsson 1926-8: skilfingr). Skilfingr is also a poetic word for ‘prince’ (see Þul Konunga 3/3) and a heiti for ‘sword’ (Þul Sverða 7/3). — [6] Óðinn: Note that the ‘real’ name of the god is first mentioned close to the end of the þula. ON Óðinn is a cognate to OE Wōden, OHG Wuotan (< Gmc *wōðanaz). The exact meaning of the word is debated (‘anger, wrath’ (?); see the discussion in AEW: Óðinn). — [6] Tveggi: This heiti means ‘twofold’ (from tveggja gen. of the cardinal numeral tveir ‘two’). Tveggi may refer to Óðinn’s practice of shape-changing, hence ‘two-faced one’ (see Falk 1924, 29). This name occurs in poetic sources (see LP: Tveggi). — [7] Veratýr: Lit. ‘god of men’. The first element is derived from the gen. pl. of  verr m. ‘man’, and the name may have been modelled on Gautatýr and Hroptatýr (see st. 3/6 and Falk 1924, 33). Cf. also Eyv Hál 2/7I vinr skatna ‘friend of warriors [= Óðinn]’. The heiti is otherwise attested only in Grí 3/3. — [7] Sigþrór: Lit. ‘battle-thriver’ or ‘victory-thriver’. Cf. Þrór (l. 4 above) as well as Óðinn-heiti with Sig- as the first element (see Notes to l. 1 above and st. 4/4). The name does not occur elsewhere. — [8] Valgautr: Lit. ‘Gautr of the slain’ (the first element is valr m. or val n. ‘the slain’). Cf. Valfǫðr and Siggautr (sts 5/7, 6/2). Valgautr is also a heathen jarl from Gautland in Egils þáttr Síðu-Hallssonar (Flat 1860-8, II, 142, 145-7). — [8] Yggr: Lit. ‘frightening one’, and most likely originally an epithet for Óðinn (= yggr adj.). On Óðinn’s ability to terrify his enemies, see Yng (ch. 6, ÍF 26, 17). This is one of the most frequently used Óðinn-names.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. FSN = Rafn, Carl Christian, ed. 1829-30. Fornaldar sögur nordrlanda. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  4. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  5. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  6. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  7. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  8. CVC = Cleasby, Richard, Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and W. A. Craigie. 1957. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon.
  9. Finnur Jónsson. 1926-8. Ordbog til de af samfund til udg. af gml. nord. litteratur udgivne Rímur samt til de af Dr. O. Jiriczek udgivne Bósarímur. SUGNL 51. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  10. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  11. NK = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1983. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. I: Text. 5th edn. Heidelberg: Winter.
  12. ÍO = Ásgeir Blöndal Magnússon. 1989. Íslensk orðsifjabók. Reykjavík: Orðabók Háskólans.
  13. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  14. SnE 2005 = Snorri Sturluson. 2005. Edda: Prologue and Gylfaginning. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2nd edn. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  15. Falk, Hjalmar. 1924. Odensheite. Skrifter utg. av Videnskapsselskapet i Kristiania. II. Hist.-filos. kl. 1924, 10. Kristiania (Oslo): Dybwad.
  16. Björn Magnússon Ólsen. 1902. ‘Strøbemærkninger til norske og islandske skjaldedigte’. ANF 18, 195-210.
  17. Höfler, Otto. 1952b. Germanisches Sakralkönigtum. Tübingen: Niemeyer and Münster: Böhlau.
  18. Internal references
  19. Not published: do not cite (GylfIII)
  20. Not published: do not cite (YngII)
  21. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Konunga heiti 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 690.
  22. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Dverga heiti 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 699.
  23. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 794.
  24. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 7’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 802.
  25. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Øxna heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 887.
  26. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Hesta heiti 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 937.
  27. Not published: do not cite ()
  28. Not published: do not cite ()
  29. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Háleygjatal 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 199.
  30. Not published: do not cite (Grett Lv 13V (Gr 26))
  31. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Guthormr sindri, Hákonardrápa 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 157.
  32. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Bjarnar heiti’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 895.
  33. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Galtar heiti’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 900.
  34. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 12’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 28.
  35. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 14’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 31.
  36. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 26’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 55.
  37. Not published: do not cite ([Þorm Lv 23x - for refence only])
  38. Not published: do not cite ()
  39. Not published: do not cite ()
  40. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Laufás Edda (LaufE)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  41. Not published: do not cite ()
  42. R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þormóðr Kolbrúnarskáld, Lausavísur 23’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 838.
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