Cookies on our website

We use cookies on this website, mainly to provide a secure browsing experience but also to collect statistics on how the website is used. You can find out more about the cookies we set, the information we store and how we use it on the cookies page.

Continue

skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Þul Óðins 4III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Óðins nǫfn 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 741.

Anonymous ÞulurÓðins nǫfn
345

Hléfǫðr, Hávi,         Hagvirkr, Sviðuðr,
Síðhǫttr, Sváfnir,         Sigfǫðr, Þrasarr,
Hrami, Hjarrandi         ok Hengikeptr,
Hrosshársgrani,         Hrjótr, Tvíblindi.

Hléfǫðr, Hávi, Hagvirkr, Sviðuðr, Síðhǫttr, Sváfnir, Sigfǫðr, Þrasarr, Hrami, Hjarrandi ok Hengikeptr, Hrosshársgrani, Hrjótr, Tvíblindi.

Hléfǫðr, Hávi, Hagvirkr, Sviðuðr, Síðhǫttr, Sváfnir, Sigfǫðr, Þrasarr, Hrami, Hjarrandi and Hengikeptr, Hrosshársgrani, Hrjótr, Tvíblindi.

Mss: A(18r), B(8r), 744ˣ(60r-v) (SnE)

Readings: [1] Hléfǫðr: ‘Hleífrudr’ B    [2] ‑virkr: ‘‑yrkr’ A, B    [5] Hrami: hrammi B    [8] Hrjótr: hrjóðr B

Editions: Skj AI, 681, Skj BI, 673, Skald I, 337; SnE 1848-87, II, 472, 555.

Notes: [1] Hléfǫðr: This cpd is not found elsewhere, which is also the case with the variant reading Hleifruðr (‘Hleífrudr’) in B. The LaufE mss have (normalised) Hléfróðr. The B variant is adopted in Skj B and Skald (but rejected in LP: Hléfǫðr). According to von Friesen (1900, 197), the form Hleifruðr could have resulted from reinterpretation of *Hleiforðr (= OE hlāford ‘lord, master’) in analogy with other Óðinn-names ending in ‑uðr (e.g. Geiguðr, Dǫrruðr). The reading Hléfǫðr, on the other hand, is supported by a number of Óðinn-names with the second element -fǫðr (reinterpreted as ‘father’; see Note to st. 1/4 above), as well as by other names with the first element Hlé-: e.g. the Óðinn-name Hléfreyr in st. 5/3 below, the giant-name Hlébarðr in Hárb 20/5, Hlévangr, a dwarf-name in Vsp 15/4, the f. pers. n. Hlédís gyðia ‘Hlédís the sorceress’ in Hyndl 13/4 (NK 290), etc. The meaning of this Hlé- element is disputed. According to Falk (1924, 17-18), hlé- may be identical either with hlé n. ‘lee, shelter protecting from bad weather’ (hence Hléfǫðr means ‘lee-father’) or with the name of the sea-god Hlér, also used as a term for ‘sea’ (hence ‘a storm-quieting god’). He suggests that the name might refer to Óðinn as a sea-god, since he is known for taking on the names and functions of other gods. In LP: Hléfǫðr, however, hlé- is interpreted as ‘famous’ (cf. the runic name Hlewagastiʀ in the Gallehus inscription (Run DR 12VI (KJ43)), whose first part is often connected with the adj. hléðr ‘famous’). On this heiti, see also Strandberg (2008, 109-11). — [1] Hávi: See Note to Hárr (st. 2/8). — [2] Hagvirkr: Perhaps ‘skilful-doer’. Both mss have ‑yrkr (so also the LaufE mss), but the generally accepted form is -virkr. The name is not attested elsewhere, but cf. hagvirki n. ‘master-work’ and the adj. hagvirkr ‘workman-like’ (CVC: hag-virkr). According to Falk (1924, 15), this Óðinn-heiti might have been formed as an antonym to Bǫlverkr ‘evil-doer’ (st. 7/1). — [2] Sviðuðr: A hap. leg. See Note to Sviðurr (st. 6/1). — [3] Síðhǫttr: Lit. ‘broad-hat’; the first element of the cpd is derived from the adj. síðr ‘long, overhanging’, and the second is hǫttr m. ‘hat, hood’. This name fits well with the traditional representation of Óðinn as one wearing a broad hat which he often pulls over his eyes. Otherwise the name occurs only in Grí 48/1, but cf. also Óðinn’s name Hǫttr in Hálfs saga ok Hálfsrekka (Hálf, FSN II, 25-6). Síðhǫttr (followed by Hnikarr, see st. 2/6) is also the name of a giant in Allra flagða þula (Vilhjálms saga sjóðs, Loth 1962-5, IV, 66). — [3] Sváfnir: Lit. ‘sleep-maker, soother’, i.e. ‘killer’, related to the weak verb svæfa/svefja ‘lull to sleep, soothe’ (cf. the sword-heiti fjǫrsváfnir ‘life-soother’, Þul Sverða 3/8). Unlike the majority of Óðinn-heiti listed here, this name is used in verse, but it has been interpreted in different ways. (a) It appears twice in Grí 34/7 and 54/7 along with the name Ofnir. In the first instance, Sváfnir and Ofnir are two mythical serpents (Þul Orma 1/3, 3/6) and in the second instance these are names for Óðinn. The fact that the names of the two serpents destroying the roots of the world-ash Yggdrasill were taken over by Óðinn could perhaps be explained by the myth of the mead of poetry, when the god turned himself into a serpent to obtain the magic drink. (b) Falk (1924, 26-7) suggests that the name may refer to Óðinn as the one who stabbed the valkyrie Sigrdrífa with a sleep-thorn (Sigrdr, prose, NK 190): Sigrdrífa feldi Hiálm-Gunnar í orrostonni. Enn Óðinn stacc hana svefnþorni í hefnd þess ‘Sigrdrífa killed Hjálm-Gunnarr in battle. But Óðinn stabbed her with a sleep-thorn in revenge for that’. (c) Alternatively, Falk (loc. cit.) proposes that the name could be a derivative from sváf, a heiti for ‘spear’ (Þul Spjóts l. 3; perhaps ‘the Swabians’ weapon’) possibly denoting ‘spear-god’ (cf. Óðinn-names with geir- as a first element, e.g. Geirǫlnir, st. 5/6 below). (d) Falk (loc. cit.) also suggests that the name could have originated from an eponym of the Suevi (the Swabians); cf. Sváfnir konungr, the ruler of Svávaland in HHj (prose, NK 140) and Swæfe in the Old English Widsith l. 22. — [4] Sigfǫðr: Lit. ‘father of battle’ or ‘father of victory’. Sig n. means ‘battle’ and sigr m. is ‘victory’, but as the first element in compounds, sig- is used in both meanings (see Note to Sigv Ást 1/4I). Both sig- and -fǫðr are frequently used in Óðinn-names (on ‑fǫðr, see Note to st. 1/4; cf. also Strandberg 2008, 111-12). Other than in the present stanza, the name is recorded in this form only in Grí 48/2 (but cf. Sigfaðir, Óðinn’s name in Vsp 55/2 and Lok 58/6). — [4] Þrasarr: Lit. ‘one in rage’ and a hap. leg. related to the weak verb þrasa ‘rage, rave’; cf. the pers. n. Þrasi, cognate with OHG Thraso, West Goth. Thrasaricus (see AEW: þrasa). Þrasir is also the name of a dwarf (see Note to Þul Dverga 4/8). — [5] Hrami: So A. It is unclear whether Hrami or the B variant hrammi is the correct form of this word, but the LaufE mss have Hrami as well. Hrami is a hap. leg. According to Falk (1924, 18), it is perhaps derived from hram(m)r m. ‘bear’s paw’ (cf. Óðinn’s name Bjǫrn ‘Bear’ in Harð ch. 15, ÍF 13, 39-40, 44), and hence the name may mean ‘grabber’ (AEW: Hrami gives der reisser ‘the ripper’). — [5] Hjarrandi: This is also the name of a legendary hero, father of Heðinn (see Skm, SnE 1998, I, 72). Cf. OE Heorrenda (in the Old English Deor l. 39), OHG Herrant as well as the pers. n. Hjarrandr, perhaps ‘croaker, clatterer’ (see AEW: Hjarrandi). — [6] Hengikeptr: Lit. ‘one with a dewlap or drooping jaw’ (with the last element keptr m. ‘jaw’, also attested in the forms kjaptr and kjǫptr). Cf. Hengikepta or Hengjankjapta, a troll-woman (see Note to Þul Trollkvenna 2/2). Hengikjǫptr is the man who gave King Fróði the mill Grotti and thus caused his death (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 52). — [7] Hrosshársgrani: Lit. ‘horse-hair moustache’. The name is known from Gautreks saga (Gautr 1900, 14, 28) where Starkaðr’s foster-father Grani (from grǫn f. ‘moustache’), or Hrosshársgrani, is the disguised Óðinn who incites Starkaðr to kill King Víkarr (see Note to StarkSt Vík 4/3VIII). Cf. also the Óðinn-name Síðgrani ‘long-whisker’ (Alv 6/3). — [8] Hrjótr: Or Hrjóðr (B). The LaufE mss have (normalised) Hrjótr. Neither of these Óðinn-names occurs in other sources. Falk (1924, 18) adopts the variant Hrjótr, which he derives either from the strong verb hrjóta in the sense ‘growl, rumble’ or ‘fall, fly, be flung’ with the notion of shaking or violence (CVC: hrjóta). Hrjóðr, lit. ‘coverer’ or ‘streamer, strewer’ (adopted in Skj B and Skald) is also attested as a heiti for ‘heaven’ (Þul Himins I l. 13, Þul Himins II l. 6) and for ‘sun’ (Þul Sólar l. 3). — [8] Tvíblindi: Lit. ‘double-blind one’ or ‘one blind in both eyes’ (from the prefix tví- ‘twice, double’ and the adj. blindr ‘blind’), a cpd not attested elsewhere. The name refers to Óðinn as the blind (one-eyed) god who also has the ability to blind others (Falk 1924, 29); cf. also Herblindi and Gestumblindi (sts 5/1, 7/8 and Notes there).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. FSN = Rafn, Carl Christian, ed. 1829-30. Fornaldar sögur nordrlanda. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  4. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  5. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  6. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  7. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  8. CVC = Cleasby, Richard, Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and W. A. Craigie. 1957. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon.
  9. NK = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1983. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. I: Text. 5th edn. Heidelberg: Winter.
  10. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  11. Falk, Hjalmar. 1924. Odensheite. Skrifter utg. av Videnskapsselskapet i Kristiania. II. Hist.-filos. kl. 1924, 10. Kristiania (Oslo): Dybwad.
  12. Loth, Agnete, ed. 1962-5. Late Medieval Icelandic Romances. 5 vols. EA B 20-4. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
  13. Friesen, Otto von. 1900. ‘Till tolkningen af Tune-stenen’. ANF 16, 191-200.
  14. Gautr 1900 = Ranisch, Wilhelm, ed. 1900. Die Gautrekssaga in zwei Fassungen. Palaestra 11. Berlin: Mayer & Müller.
  15. Strandberg, Mathias. 2008. ‘On the Etymology of Compounded Old Icelandic Óðinn names with the Second Component -fǫðr’. SI 59, 93-120.
  16. ÍF 13 = Harðar saga. Ed. Þórhallur Vilmundarson and Bjarni Vilhjálmson. 1991.
  17. Internal references
  18. 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Gautreks saga’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 241.
  19. Not published: do not cite (HarðV)
  20. 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Hálfs saga ok Hálfsrekka’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 303.
  21. Not published: do not cite (SkmIII)
  22. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Trollkvenna heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 725.
  23. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Dverga heiti 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 699.
  24. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 794.
  25. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Orma heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 928.
  26. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Ívarr Ingimundarson, Sigurðarbálkr’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 501-27.
  27. Not published: do not cite ()
  28. Not published: do not cite ()
  29. Not published: do not cite ()
  30. Not published: do not cite ()
  31. Not published: do not cite ()
  32. Not published: do not cite ()
  33. Not published: do not cite ()
  34. Not published: do not cite ()
  35. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Spjóts heiti’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 816.
  36. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Himins heiti I’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 905.
  37. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Sólar heiti’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 909.
  38. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Himins heiti II’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 916.
  39. Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Poem about Queen Ástríðr 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 646.
  40. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Gautreks saga 12 (Starkaðr gamli Stórvirksson, Víkarsbálkr 4)’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 258.
  41. Not published: do not cite ()
  42. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Laufás Edda (LaufE)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  43. Not published: do not cite ()
Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.