Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Óðins nǫfn 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 741.
Hléfǫðr, Hávi, Hagvirkr, Sviðuðr,
Síðhǫttr, Sváfnir, Sigfǫðr, Þrasarr,
Hrami, Hjarrandi ok Hengikeptr,
Hrosshársgrani, Hrjótr, Tvíblindi.
Hléfǫðr, Hávi, Hagvirkr, Sviðuðr, Síðhǫttr, Sváfnir, Sigfǫðr, Þrasarr, Hrami, Hjarrandi ok Hengikeptr, Hrosshársgrani, Hrjótr, Tvíblindi.
Hléfǫðr, Hávi, Hagvirkr, Sviðuðr, Síðhǫttr, Sváfnir, Sigfǫðr, Þrasarr, Hrami, Hjarrandi and Hengikeptr, Hrosshársgrani, Hrjótr, Tvíblindi.
Mss: A(18r), B(8r), 744ˣ(60r-v) (SnE)
Readings:  Hléfǫðr: ‘Hleífrudr’ B  ‑virkr: ‘‑yrkr’ A, B  Hrami: hrammi B  Hrjótr: hrjóðr B
Notes:  Hléfǫðr: This cpd is not found elsewhere, which is also the case with the variant reading Hleifruðr (‘Hleífrudr’) in B. The LaufE mss have (normalised) Hléfróðr. The B variant is adopted in Skj B and Skald (but rejected in LP: Hléfǫðr). According to von Friesen (1900, 197), the form Hleifruðr could have resulted from reinterpretation of *Hleiforðr (= OE hlāford ‘lord, master’) in analogy with other Óðinn-names ending in ‑uðr (e.g. Geiguðr, Dǫrruðr). The reading Hléfǫðr, on the other hand, is supported by a number of Óðinn-names with the second element -fǫðr (reinterpreted as ‘father’; see Note to st. 1/4 above), as well as by other names with the first element Hlé-: e.g. the Óðinn-name Hléfreyr in st. 5/3 below, the giant-name Hlébarðr in Hárb 20/5, Hlévangr, a dwarf-name in Vsp 15/4, the f. pers. n. Hlédís gyðia ‘Hlédís the sorceress’ in Hyndl 13/4 (NK 290), etc. The meaning of this Hlé- element is disputed. According to Falk (1924, 17-18), hlé- may be identical either with hlé n. ‘lee, shelter protecting from bad weather’ (hence Hléfǫðr means ‘lee-father’) or with the name of the sea-god Hlér, also used as a term for ‘sea’ (hence ‘a storm-quieting god’). He suggests that the name might refer to Óðinn as a sea-god, since he is known for taking on the names and functions of other gods. In LP: Hléfǫðr, however, hlé- is interpreted as ‘famous’ (cf. the runic name Hlewagastiʀ in the Gallehus inscription (Run DR 12VI (KJ43)), whose first part is often connected with the adj. hléðr ‘famous’). On this heiti, see also Strandberg (2008, 109-11). —  Hávi: See Note to Hárr (st. 2/8). —  Hagvirkr: Perhaps ‘skilful-doer’. Both mss have ‑yrkr (so also the LaufE mss), but the generally accepted form is -virkr. The name is not attested elsewhere, but cf. hagvirki n. ‘master-work’ and the adj. hagvirkr ‘workman-like’ (CVC: hag-virkr). According to Falk (1924, 15), this Óðinn-heiti might have been formed as an antonym to Bǫlverkr ‘evil-doer’ (st. 7/1). —  Sviðuðr: A hap. leg. See Note to Sviðurr (st. 6/1). —  Síðhǫttr: Lit. ‘broad-hat’; the first element of the cpd is derived from the adj. síðr ‘long, overhanging’, and the second is hǫttr m. ‘hat, hood’. This name fits well with the traditional representation of Óðinn as one wearing a broad hat which he often pulls over his eyes. Otherwise the name occurs only in Grí 48/1, but cf. also Óðinn’s name Hǫttr in Hálfs saga ok Hálfsrekka (Hálf, FSN II, 25-6). Síðhǫttr (followed by Hnikarr, see st. 2/6) is also the name of a giant in Allra flagða þula (Vilhjálms saga sjóðs, Loth 1962-5, IV, 66). —  Sváfnir: Lit. ‘sleep-maker, soother’, i.e. ‘killer’, related to the weak verb svæfa/svefja ‘lull to sleep, soothe’ (cf. the sword-heiti fjǫrsváfnir ‘life-soother’, Þul Sverða 3/8). Unlike the majority of Óðinn-heiti listed here, this name is used in verse, but it has been interpreted in different ways. (a) It appears twice in Grí 34/7 and 54/7 along with the name Ofnir. In the first instance, Sváfnir and Ofnir are two mythical serpents (Þul Orma 1/3, 3/6) and in the second instance these are names for Óðinn. The fact that the names of the two serpents destroying the roots of the world-ash Yggdrasill were taken over by Óðinn could perhaps be explained by the myth of the mead of poetry, when the god turned himself into a serpent to obtain the magic drink. (b) Falk (1924, 26-7) suggests that the name may refer to Óðinn as the one who stabbed the valkyrie Sigrdrífa with a sleep-thorn (Sigrdr, prose, NK 190): Sigrdrífa feldi Hiálm-Gunnar í orrostonni. Enn Óðinn stacc hana svefnþorni í hefnd þess ‘Sigrdrífa killed Hjálm-Gunnarr in battle. But Óðinn stabbed her with a sleep-thorn in revenge for that’. (c) Alternatively, Falk (loc. cit.) proposes that the name could be a derivative from sváf, a heiti for ‘spear’ (Þul Spjóts l. 3; perhaps ‘the Swabians’ weapon’) possibly denoting ‘spear-god’ (cf. Óðinn-names with geir- as a first element, e.g. Geirǫlnir, st. 5/6 below). (d) Falk (loc. cit.) also suggests that the name could have originated from an eponym of the Suevi (the Swabians); cf. Sváfnir konungr, the ruler of Svávaland in HHj (prose, NK 140) and Swæfe in the Old English Widsith l. 22. —  Sigfǫðr: Lit. ‘father of battle’ or ‘father of victory’. Sig n. means ‘battle’ and sigr m. is ‘victory’, but as the first element in compounds, sig- is used in both meanings (see Note to Sigv Ást 1/4I). Both sig- and -fǫðr are frequently used in Óðinn-names (on ‑fǫðr, see Note to st. 1/4; cf. also Strandberg 2008, 111-12). Other than in the present stanza, the name is recorded in this form only in Grí 48/2 (but cf. Sigfaðir, Óðinn’s name in Vsp 55/2 and Lok 58/6). —  Þrasarr: Lit. ‘one in rage’ and a hap. leg. related to the weak verb þrasa ‘rage, rave’; cf. the pers. n. Þrasi, cognate with OHG Thraso, West Goth. Thrasaricus (see AEW: þrasa). Þrasir is also the name of a dwarf (see Note to Þul Dverga 4/8). —  Hrami: So A. It is unclear whether Hrami or the B variant hrammi is the correct form of this word, but the LaufE mss have Hrami as well. Hrami is a hap. leg. According to Falk (1924, 18), it is perhaps derived from hram(m)r m. ‘bear’s paw’ (cf. Óðinn’s name Bjǫrn ‘Bear’ in Harð ch. 15, ÍF 13, 39-40, 44), and hence the name may mean ‘grabber’ (AEW: Hrami gives der reisser ‘the ripper’). —  Hjarrandi: This is also the name of a legendary hero, father of Heðinn (see Skm, SnE 1998, I, 72). Cf. OE Heorrenda (in the Old English Deor l. 39), OHG Herrant as well as the pers. n. Hjarrandr, perhaps ‘croaker, clatterer’ (see AEW: Hjarrandi). —  Hengikeptr: Lit. ‘one with a dewlap or drooping jaw’ (with the last element keptr m. ‘jaw’, also attested in the forms kjaptr and kjǫptr). Cf. Hengikepta or Hengjankjapta, a troll-woman (see Note to Þul Trollkvenna 2/2). Hengikjǫptr is the man who gave King Fróði the mill Grotti and thus caused his death (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 52). —  Hrosshársgrani: Lit. ‘horse-hair moustache’. The name is known from Gautreks saga (Gautr 1900, 14, 28) where Starkaðr’s foster-father Grani (from grǫn f. ‘moustache’), or Hrosshársgrani, is the disguised Óðinn who incites Starkaðr to kill King Víkarr (see Note to StarkSt Vík 4/3VIII). Cf. also the Óðinn-name Síðgrani ‘long-whisker’ (Alv 6/3). —  Hrjótr: Or Hrjóðr (B). The LaufE mss have (normalised) Hrjótr. Neither of these Óðinn-names occurs in other sources. Falk (1924, 18) adopts the variant Hrjótr, which he derives either from the strong verb hrjóta in the sense ‘growl, rumble’ or ‘fall, fly, be flung’ with the notion of shaking or violence (CVC: hrjóta). Hrjóðr, lit. ‘coverer’ or ‘streamer, strewer’ (adopted in Skj B and Skald) is also attested as a heiti for ‘heaven’ (Þul Himins I l. 13, Þul Himins II l. 6) and for ‘sun’ (Þul Sólar l. 3). —  Tvíblindi: Lit. ‘double-blind one’ or ‘one blind in both eyes’ (from the prefix tví- ‘twice, double’ and the adj. blindr ‘blind’), a cpd not attested elsewhere. The name refers to Óðinn as the blind (one-eyed) god who also has the ability to blind others (Falk 1924, 29); cf. also Herblindi and Gestumblindi (sts 5/1, 7/8 and Notes there).
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