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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Dverga 6III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Dverga heiti 6’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 704.

Anonymous ÞulurDverga heiti
56

Hljóðolfr, Kíli,         Hildingr ok Litr,
Ráðspakr, Lofarr,         Reginn ok Ljómi,
Ráðsviðr, Lóinn,         Rekkr ok Eitri,
Jaki, Eggmóinn,         Eikinskjaldi.

Hljóðolfr, Kíli, Hildingr ok Litr, Ráðspakr, Lofarr, Reginn ok Ljómi, Ráðsviðr, Lóinn, Rekkr ok Eitri, Jaki, Eggmóinn, Eikinskjaldi.

Hljóðólfr, Kíli, Hildingr and Litr, Ráðspakr, Lofarr, Reginn and Ljómi, Ráðsviðr, Lóinn, Rekkr and Eitri, Jaki, Eggmóinn, Eikinskjaldi.

Mss: A(17v), B(8r), 744ˣ(56r) (SnE)

Readings: [1] Kíli: ‘[…]’ B, ‘kíle’ 744ˣ    [2] Hildingr: ‘[…]illdinngr’ B, ‘hílldinngr’ 744ˣ;    Litr: ‘li[…]’ B, ‘lítr’ 744ˣ    [3] Ráðspakr Lofarr: ‘rad[…]’ B, ‘radspakr lofar’ 744ˣ    [4] Reginn: ‘[…]inn’ B, reginn 744ˣ    [5] Ráðsviðr Lóinn: ‘[…]adsvidr […]o[…]’ B, ‘raðsuiðr loínn’ 744ˣ    [6] Rekkr ok: ‘r[…]’ B, ‘reckr ok’ 744ˣ    [7] Jaki: ‘toki’ B    [8] Eikinskjaldi: ‘[…]ínskíallde’ B, ‘eikín skíallde’ 744ˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 680, Skj BI, 672, Skald I, 337; SnE 1848-87, II, 470, 553.

Notes: [1] Hljóðolfr: A hap. leg. The name can be translated as ‘howling wolf’ from hljóð n. ‘noise’ and úlfr, ‑ólfr m. ‘wolf’, cf. also varghljóð ‘howling of wolves’ (Gould 1929, 949). — [1] Kíli: The name means ‘wedge’ or ‘one who uses a wedge’, i.e. ‘smith’. The word comes from mainland Scandinavia, cf. ModNorw., ModDan. kile, borrowed from OFris., LG kīl, whereas Icelandic retains veggr m. ‘wedge’ (Gould 1929, 950). This dwarf-name is also recorded in Vsp 13/1 (NK 3: Fíli, Kíli; see Fíli in st. 5/1) and in Gylf (SnE 2005, 16; spelled Kili). — [2] Hildingr: Perhaps ‘warrior’ or ‘ruler’ (see Þul Konunga 2/1). As a dwarf-name, the heiti does not occur elsewhere. — [2] Litr: Lit. ‘coloured one’, cf. litr m. ‘ruddy complexion’. According to Gutenbrunner (1955, 66), this name may be interpreted as ‘one of good colour’, ‘one with a healthy complexion’. Dwarfs of this name appear in several sources (cf. Vsp 12/4, Gylf, SnE 2005, 16, Án ch. 1 and ÞorstVík chs 5-6, FSN II, 327, 396-9). In Gylf (SnE 2005, 46), Litr is the dwarf whom Þórr thrust into Baldr’s funeral pyre when he ran in front of his feet. See also Mjǫklituð in st. 1/2 and Note to Fár in st. 5/1 above. Litr is also the name of a giant in Bragi Þórr 5/1 and an ox-heiti (Þul Øxna 2/5). — [3] Ráðspakr: Lit. ‘one wise in counsel’ (cf. the adj. ráðspakr with the same meaning). A dwarf of this name is mentioned only in this þula.  — [3] Lofarr: According to Vsp 14/4, 16/8, a forefather of the dwarfs (so also Gylf, SnE 2005, 16). The name may mean ‘stooper’ (cf. New Norw. luva ‘bend down, walk or sit bent over’ and luv adj. ‘one with a bowed head, with hair over the forehead’; so Gould 1929, 950). However, Lofarr may also be connected with the weak verb lofa ‘praise’; so Dronke 1997, 10). — [4] Reginn: New formation (m. sg.) from regin n. pl. ‘divine powers, gods’ connected etymologically with Goth. ragin ‘decision’ and rahnjan ‘organise’ (AEW: regin). See also Note to Þul Jǫtna II 2/8. The dwarf Reginn is mentioned in Vsp 12/7 (NK 3) as one of the pair Reginn oc Ráðsviðr (for Ráðsviðr, see the next line) and in Egils saga einhenda (ch. 16, FSN III, 403). It is not clear whether the dwarf of this name is the same as Reginn Hreiðmarsson known from the legend of the Niflungar as the brother of Fáfnir and the foster-father of Sigurðr (cf. SnE 1998, II, 500, where the two names are listed separately). However, in Reg (prose, NK 173) the latter Reginn is said to be dvergr of vǫxt ‘of a dwarf’s stature’. Reginn is the only dwarf-name listed in this stanza which occurs in skaldic kennings (LP: reginn). See also Reginn as a heiti for ‘ox’ (Þul Øxna 1/5). — [4] Ljómi: The name means either ‘glow, gleam’ (cf. ljómi m. ‘glow, gleam’; so Gould 1929, 950) or ‘ray, beam, radiance’ (so Motz 1973, 114). This dwarf-name is not attested elsewhere, but in the þulur ljómi ‘brightness’ is also a heiti for ‘sword’ (see Þul Sverða 6/6). Ljómi is also a personal nickname (Fritzner: ljómi). — [5] Ráðsviðr: Lit. ‘one wise in counsel’ (cf. the adj. ráðsviðr/ráðsvinnr with the same meaning; Gould 1929, 953). This name is also recorded in Vsp 12/7 and in Gylf (SnE 2005, 16). See also Ráðspakr in l. 3 above. — [5] Lóinn: The name possibly means ‘lazy one’ (cf. New Norw. loen ‘inclined to saunter’, loa ‘walk slowly, waste time’; Gould 1929, 950). This dwarf is not known from other sources. — [6] Rekkr: Most likely this name is the same as the noun rekkr m. ‘warrior, hero, man’ (see Þul Manna 1/5, and cf. Hildingr in l. 2 above). This dwarf is also mentioned in the list from Vsp in Gylf (SnE 2005, 16), but the Codex Regius version gives the name Reginn rather than Rekkr (see Vsp 12/7 (NK 3)). — [6] Eitri: The name may be translated as ‘poisonous one’ (cf. eitr n. ‘poison’). In a story told in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 41-2), Eitri is the dwarf smith who made precious things for the gods, among them the ring Draupnir and Þórr’s hammer. — [7] Jaki: As a dwarf-name, Jaki is attested only in this þula. Gould (1929, 950) interprets the name as ‘ice-floe’ or ‘ice-berg’ (cf. jaki m. ‘piece of ice’; CVC: jaki). The A variant Jaki could be a scribal error, since ms. B has ‘toki’. However, although Tóki is the name of several legendary persons, it never occurs as a dwarf-name in other sources, and, furthermore, the A variant is supported by the LaufE mss which also have Jaki. Finnur Jónsson (LP: Jaki) suggests that the correct reading may be Jari ‘warrior’ (from jara f. ‘battle’), but he retains Jaki in Skj B. The name Jari is attested in the dwarf-stanzas in the Hb version of Vsp (Iari, Eikin skialldi, Hb 1892-6, 189; cf. the second name in l. 8 below). The Hb reading may be supported by the evidence from later poetry: ÍO gives the forms jári and jár m. as heiti for ‘dwarf’ and as a name for Óðinn which occurs in rímur. — [7] Eggmóinn: The name is not attested elsewhere. Gould (1929, 944-5) and Motz (1973, 114) believe that it may mean ‘one made soft, weak (i.e. slain) by the sword’ (cf. egg f. ‘sharp edge’ and móinn, p. p. of the verb móask ‘digest’, as well as New Norw. moa ‘soften by pressure, beating, chewing’). The serpent-name móinn (see Þul Orma 4/7) may well be the same word, although it is commonly explained as a derivative from mór m. ‘moor, heath’, hence ‘moor-dweller’. The horse-name móinn is usually connected with mór ‘brown’ (hence, ‘brownish one’; see Þul Hesta 4/1). There are other heiti with the second element ‑móinn in the þulur: gest-Móinn (see Note to Þul Sverða 9/7) and fik-Móinn (Þul Hjálms 1/8). It cannot be excluded that the dwarf-name Eggmóinn may mean ‘edge-brown one’, referring to the dark colour of a corpse. — [8] Eikinskjaldi: Perhaps the name means ‘one with an oaken shield’ (cf. eik f. ‘oak’ and skjǫldr m. ‘shield’; so Gould 1929, 945), although Bugge (1867, 93 n.) interprets eikinn as ‘violent, raging’ (adj.), hence ‘raging one with a shield’. This name is mentioned twice in Vsp 13/8, 16/2, but only the latter instance is given in Gylf (SnE 2005, 17). The dwarf-name also occurs in the rímur (Finnur Jónsson 1926-8: Eikinskjaldi). See also Note to the river-name Ekin in Þul Á 1/8 and Refr Frag 4/4.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. FSN = Rafn, Carl Christian, ed. 1829-30. Fornaldar sögur nordrlanda. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  4. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  5. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  6. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  7. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  8. CVC = Cleasby, Richard, Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and W. A. Craigie. 1957. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon.
  9. Bugge, Sophus, ed. 1867. Norrœn fornkvæði. Islandsk samling af folkelige oldtidsdigte om nordens guder og heroer. Almindelig kaldet Sæmundar Edda hins frøda. Christiania (Oslo): Malling. Rpt. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget 1965.
  10. Finnur Jónsson. 1926-8. Ordbog til de af samfund til udg. af gml. nord. litteratur udgivne Rímur samt til de af Dr. O. Jiriczek udgivne Bósarímur. SUGNL 51. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  11. Fritzner = Fritzner, Johan. 1883-96. Ordbog over det gamle norske sprog. 3 vols. Kristiania (Oslo): Den norske forlagsforening. 4th edn. Rpt. 1973. Oslo etc.: Universitetsforlaget.
  12. NK = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1983. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. I: Text. 5th edn. Heidelberg: Winter.
  13. ÍO = Ásgeir Blöndal Magnússon. 1989. Íslensk orðsifjabók. Reykjavík: Orðabók Háskólans.
  14. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  15. Hb 1892-6 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1892-6. Hauksbók udgiven efter de Arnamagnæanske håndskrifter no. 371, 544 og 675, 4° samt forskellige papirshåndskrifter. Copenhagen: Det kongelige nordiske oldskrift-selskab.
  16. SnE 2005 = Snorri Sturluson. 2005. Edda: Prologue and Gylfaginning. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2nd edn. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  17. Dronke, Ursula, ed. and trans. 1997. The Poetic Edda. II: Mythological Poems. Oxford: Clarendon.
  18. Gould, Chester N. 1929. ‘Dwarf-names: A Study in Old Icelandic Religion’. PMLA 44, 938-67.
  19. Gutenbrunner, Siegfried. 1955. ‘Eddastudien I. Über die Zwerge in der Völuspa Str. 9-13’. ANF 70, 61-75.
  20. Motz, Lotte. 1973. ‘New Thoughts on Dwarf-Names in Old Icelandic’. FS 7, 100-17.
  21. Internal references
  22. (forthcoming), ‘ Anonymous, Áns saga bogsveigis’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=12> (accessed 28 September 2021)
  23. (forthcoming), ‘ Snorri Sturluson, Skáldskaparmál’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=112> (accessed 28 September 2021)
  24. (forthcoming), ‘ Snorri Sturluson, Gylfaginning’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=113> (accessed 28 September 2021)
  25. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Jǫtna heiti II 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 721.
  26. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Konunga heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 689.
  27. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Manna heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 775.
  28. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 6’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 800.
  29. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 9’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 806.
  30. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Øxna heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 885.
  31. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Øxna heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 887.
  32. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Orma heiti 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 933.
  33. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Hesta heiti 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 939.
  34. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Hjálms heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 828.
  35. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Á heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 838.
  36. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Bragi inn gamli Boddason, Þórr’s fishing 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 51.
  37. Not published: do not cite ()
  38. Not published: do not cite ()
  39. Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Hofgarða-Refr Gestsson, Fragments 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 262.
  40. (forthcoming), ‘ Unattributed, Laufás Edda’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=10928> (accessed 28 September 2021)
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