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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Konunga 3III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Konunga heiti 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 690.

Anonymous ÞulurKonunga heiti
23

Sinjórr, siklingr,         sjóli, ræsir,
skjǫldungr, skilfingr,         skyli ok yngvi,
ynglingr, ylfingr;         eru nú talið
hǫfuðskjǫldunga         heiti nǫkkur.

Sinjórr, siklingr, sjóli, ræsir, skjǫldungr, skilfingr, skyli ok yngvi, ynglingr, ylfingr; nú eru nǫkkur heiti hǫfuðskjǫldunga talið.

Seigneur, prince, chieftain, impeller, descendant of Skjǫldr, descendant of Skelfir, protector and yngvi, descendant of Yngvi, one of the Ylfingar; now some names of the highest rulers have been enumerated.

Mss: A(17r), B(8r), 744ˣ(53v) (SnE)

Readings: [1] siklingr: ‘si[…]gr’ B, siklingr 744ˣ    [2] sjóli: ‘s[…]i’ B, ‘skvle’ 744ˣ    [5] ynglingr: om. B    [6] eru talið: ok eru nú talin B    [7] ‑skjǫldunga: ‘skio᷎lldunng[…]’ B, ‘skio᷎lldunga’ 744ˣ    [8] heiti: ‘[…]’ B, heiti 744ˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 679, Skj BI, 671, Skald I, 336; SnE 1848-87, II 469, 551.

Notes: [1] sinjórr (m.) ‘seigneur’: In the mss this word is spelled ‘Sinnioʀ’ (A) and ‘Sínnior’ (B), while Skm has sinnjór eða senjór (SnE 1998, I, 100). This is a loan word (< OFr. seignor < Lat. seniorem ‘lord’), first used and perhaps introduced by Sigvatr Þórðarson, in whose poetry this honorific occurs in two different forms: sinjórr (Sigv Berv 18/4II) and synjórr (Sigv ErfÓl 8/4I). The word survives in Modern Icelandic as signor, the title of a hreppstjóri ‘overseer’ of a hrepp(u)r (‘poor-law district’, now ‘parish’). — [1] siklingr (m.) ‘prince’: In Skm, the Siklingar are the descendants of Sigarr, a son of Hálfdan gamli (see Introduction above), or, as Faulkes (SnE 1998, II, 387) suggests, the descendants of Óðinn’s son Sigi/Siggi. According to AEW, siklingr is derived from the pers. n. Sikki (cf. OHG Siccho). — [2] sjóli (m.) ‘chieftain’: Other than in this þula, the word occurs only once in older poetry (Eil Þdr 10/3), but later it reappears in the rímur and becomes frequent in modern lays (see CVC: sjóli). The etymology of this heiti is uncertain. Noreen (1890, 311) believed that it is derived from Gmc *sebul- (cf. MHG unsivel ‘unfriendly’), while Alexander Jóhannesson (1951-6, 771) thought it might be related to sær/sjór ‘sea’, and hence possibly ‘a sea-king’. Ms. B is no longer legible here (‘s[…]i’), but 744ˣ offers ‘skvle’ i.e. the pers. n. Skúli, who is also listed in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 101) among the sons of Hálfdan gamli (see Introduction above). That word is otherwise not attested as a heiti for ‘king’ in poetry. — [2] ræsir (m.) ‘impeller’: A poetic word for ‘ruler’, and the name of one of the sons of Hálfdan gamli (see Introduction above). Falk (1889c, 258) argues that ræsir is a loanword from OE ræswa ‘leader’, but it is more likely to be an agent noun from the weak verb ræsa ‘set in motion’ (so AEW: ræsir; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1923, 105-6). If so, it must be identical with the word ræsir which frequently occurs as a base-word in kennings for ‘man’ or ‘warrior’, where it is used in its literal sense (‘one who sets in motion, impeller’). — [3] skjǫldungr (m.) ‘descendant of Skjǫldr’: As a common noun this is a poetic word for ‘ruler’. In Norse tradition the Skjǫldungar were the kings of Denmark, the descendants of Skjǫldr, a son of Óðinn (cf. Hkr, ÍF 26, 15; ÍF 35, 14; SnE 1998, I, 103). See also OE Scyld and Scyldingas/Scildingas (Beowulf 2008, 471). The name Skjǫldr must be derived from the common noun skjǫldr m. ‘shield’. It has been suggested that the word could have originated in the sense ‘shield-carrier’ (so LP: skjǫldungr), although that is uncertain (skjǫldungr is not an agent noun). See also hilmir ‘helmet-provider’ (st. 2/3). — [3] skilfingr (m.) ‘descendant of Skelfir’: A poetic word for ‘ruler’ from the name of a royal dynasty, the Skilfingar ‘descendants of Skelfir’ (SnE 1998, I, 103). Cf. the OE Scylfingas/Scilfingas, members of a Swedish dynasty and denoting the Swedes in Beowulf (see Beowulf 2008, 471-2). Skilfingr is also a name for Óðinn (Þul Óðins 8/5) and a sword-heiti (Þul Sverða 7/3). — [4] skyli (m.) ‘protector’: A poetic term for ‘ruler’ and also the name of a son of Hálfdan gamli, cf. Skm (SnE 1998, I, 101): Skyli eða Skúli ‘Skyli or Skúli’. See Introduction and Note and l. 2 (sjóli) above. — [4] yngvi (m.): As a common noun the word is used for ‘ruler’ in general. It was originally a pers. n. of various legendary kings and heroes (for a discussion of Yngvi and the Ynglingar, the kings of Norway, see Introduction to Þjóð YtI). In Skm (SnE 1998, I, 103), Yngvi is a son of Hálfdan gamli and the ancestor of the Ynglingar, although the same section of Skm also gives Yngvarr as their ancestor. Yngvi is listed among the names of the sea-kings in Þul Sækonunga 4/8 (see Note there). — [5] ylfingr (m.) ‘one of the Ylfingar’: The Ylfingar belonged to a legendary royal family (SnE 1998, I, 103), and the OE Wylfingas/Wilfingas in Beowulf were members of a Germanic tribe probably occupying a territory south of the Baltic (see Beowulf 2008, 473). In poetry the word is never used in the sg. form as a common noun.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  3. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  5. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  6. CVC = Cleasby, Richard, Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and W. A. Craigie. 1957. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon.
  7. Alexander Jóhannesson. 1951-6. Isländisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2 vols. Bern: Franke.
  8. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  9. ÍF 35 = Danakonunga sǫgur. Ed. Bjarni Guðnason. 1982.
  10. Beowulf 2008 = Fulk, Robert D., Robert E. Bjork and John D. Niles, eds. 2008. Klaeber’s Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg. 4th rev. edn of Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg, ed. Fr. Klaeber. Toronto, Buffalo and London: University of Toronto Press.
  11. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  12. Falk, Hjalmar. 1889c. ‘Med hvilken ret kaldes skaldesproget kunstigt? 1. Homonymiens rolle. 2. De saakaldte halfkenningar. 3. Personnavnes indflydelse paa mands- og kvindekenningar. 4. Oversigt over det poetiske udtryks udvikling’. ANF 5, 245-77.
  13. Noreen, Adolf. 1890. ‘Några fornnordiska judlagar. I-V’. ANF 6, 303-39.
  14. Björn Magnússon Ólsen. 1923. ‘Et bidrag til spørgsmaalet om Helgedigtenes oprindelse’. ANF 39, 97-130.
  15. Internal references
  16. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  17. Not published: do not cite (SkmIII)
  18. Judith Jesch 2017, ‘(Biography of) Sigvatr Þórðarson’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 347.
  19. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sækonunga heiti 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 683.
  20. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Óðins nǫfn 8’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 751.
  21. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 7’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 802.
  22. Edith Marold with the assistance of Vivian Busch, Jana Krüger, Ann-Dörte Kyas and Katharina Seidel, translated from German by John Foulks 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 3.
  23. Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Eilífr Goðrúnarson, Þórsdrápa 10’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 96.
  24. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Bersǫglisvísur 18’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 30.
  25. Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Erfidrápa Óláfs helga 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 674.
  26. Not published: do not cite ()
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