Cookies on our website

We use cookies on this website, mainly to provide a secure browsing experience but also to collect statistics on how the website is used. You can find out more about the cookies we set, the information we store and how we use it on the cookies page.

Continue

skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Þul Ásynja 2III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Ásynja heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 765.

Anonymous ÞulurÁsynja heiti
123

Hlín ok Nanna,         Hnoss, Rindr ok Sjǫfn,
Sól ok Sága,         Sigyn ok Vǫr;
þá es Vár, ok Syn         verðr at nefna,
en Þrúðr ok Rán         þeim næst talið.

Hlín ok Nanna, Hnoss, Rindr ok Sjǫfn, Sól ok Sága, Sigyn ok Vǫr; þá es Vár, ok verðr at nefna Syn, en Þrúðr ok Rán talið næst þeim.

Hlín and Nanna, Hnoss, Rindr and Sjǫfn, Sól and Sága, Sigyn and Vǫr; then there is Vár, and Syn must be named, and Þrúðr and Rán [are] listed next to them.

Mss: R(42v), Tˣ(44r), C(11v), A(18r), B(8v), 744ˣ(62v-63r) (SnE)

Readings: [1] Hlín: ‘Hl[…]’ B, ‘Hlín’ 744ˣ    [2] Rindr: ‘rinnd’ B;    ok: om. Tˣ, C    [3] Sól: ‘s[…]l’ B, ‘sol’ 744ˣ;    ok: om. Tˣ    [4] Sigyn: ‘sygin’ Tˣ, C, ‘siggyn’ A, ‘sigunn’ B;    ok: om. Tˣ    [5] þá es (‘þa er’): ‘[…]’ B, ‘þa er’ 744ˣ;    Syn: ‘s[…]’ B, ‘syn’ 744ˣ    [6] verðr: ‘[…]’ B, ‘verðr’ 744ˣ    [8] þeim: er þeim A, B;    næst: ‘[…]e᷎st’ B, ‘ne᷎st’ 744ˣ;    talið: talin C, B

Editions: Skj AI, 658, Skj BI, 661, Skald I, 325; SnE 1848-87, I, 556, II, 473, 557, 617, SnE 1931, 197, SnE 1998, I, 114-15.

Notes: [All]: Almost all the names of the goddesses listed here are commonly used as base-words in kennings for ‘woman’ and therefore also enumerated in Þul Kvenna II. The few exceptions are Hnoss (l. 2), Vár (l. 5) and Sigyn (l. 4). The former two do occur in kennings for ‘woman’, but they are not recorded in the list of Kvenna heiti ókend. Sigyn on the other hand, is never found in this type of kenning, but the name is mentioned in Þul Kvenna II. — [1] Hlín: This name means ‘defending one’ (cf. hlein f. ‘peaceful refuge’ and the weak verb hleina ‘save, protect’; AEW: Hlín). In Vsp 53/1-2 (see Dronke 1997, 149 and SnE 2005, 52, 70 n. 52/5), Hlín is a name for Frigg (see st. 1/3 above), although according to Gylf (SnE 2005, 30) she is Frigg’s messenger and her function is to protect people. — [1] Nanna: In Old Norse sources, Nanna is Baldr’s wife and the daughter of Nepr (see Notes to Þul Ása I ll. 2, 3). She did not survive her husband and died from grief at his death (SnE 2005, 26, 46-7; SnE 1998, I, 1, 17, 30). In the other version of this myth related by Saxo (Saxo 2005, I, 3, 2, 2-9, pp. 190-7), Nanna is the wife of Hǫðr (see Note to Þul Ása I l. 10). Turville-Petre (1964, 115) argues that Nanna is the name of a valkyrie and, based on nǫnnor Herians ‘the Nǫnnur of Herjann <= Óðinn> [VALKYRIES]’ in Vsp 30/10 (NK 7), he maintains that the meaning of the name is probably ‘warlike’. However, the very structure of this poetic circumlocution in which Nanna (nǫnnur pl.) is the base-word in a kenning for ‘valkyrie’, speaks against that assumption. The origin of the name is uncertain. It is either a nursery word (cf. ModSwed. dialects nanna ‘mother’) or derived from the Germanic root *nanþ- (cf. ON nenna ‘strive’; AEW: Nanna). — [2] Hnoss: This Ásynja is mentioned in Gylf (SnE 2005, 29) and in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 30, 43) as Freyja’s daughter (see also st. 3/7-8 below). Hnoss translates as ‘treasure’, and Snorri explains that from her name whatever is beautiful and valuable is called hnoss. See also Note to [All] above, as well as ESk Øxfl 3-5. — [2] Rindr: Mother of Váli, Baldr’s avenger (see Þul Ása I l. 4 and Bdr 11/1-4), and a mistress of Óðinn’s, whom he won by spells (cf. KormǪ Sigdr 3; see also Gylf, SnE 2005, 26, 30 and Skm, SnE 1998, I, 19, 30, 35-6). Rindr is probably a giantess who has been included among the goddesses, but in the story related by Saxo (Saxo 2005, I, 3, 4, 1-8, pp. 204-9), Rinda is a daughter of the king of the Ruthenians (Russians). For suggested etymologies, see AEW: Rindr. — [2] Sjǫfn: The name of this goddess means ‘betrothed one’, and she is mentioned in Gylf (SnE 2005, 29), where it is told that her concern is to direct people’s minds to love, and that from her name affection is called sjafni m. ‘love’. Otherwise the name Sjǫfn is found only in a few kennings for ‘woman’. — [3] Sól: The personification of the sun, and the sister of Máni lit. ‘moon’ (Vafþr 23/1-3). In Gylf (SnE 2005, 13, 30), it is told that Sól, although reckoned among the Ásynjur, is a human being, the daughter of Mundilfœri. The gods had taken her from her earthly husband and placed her in the sky to drive the horses that pulled the chariot of the sun. — [3] Sága: One of the goddesses whose name is common in skaldic kennings. Nothing is known of this Ásynja except that she dwells at a place called Søkkvabekkr ‘sunken-bench’ and is somehow associated with Óðinn. Cf. Grí 7/4-6 (NK 58): þar þau Óðinn oc Sága | drecca um alla daga, | glǫð, ór gullnom kerom ‘there Óðinn and Sága, glad, drink every day from golden cups’. In Gylf (SnE 2005, 29) her name is given right after the name of Óðinn’s wife Frigg, and it is possible that Sága was identified with Frigg (cf. LP: Sága). This name is related either to the strong verb sjá ‘see’ (‘seeress’(?)) or to saga f. ‘story, legend’ (‘proclaiming one’(?)). — [4] Sigyn: The wife of Loki (Þul Ása II l. 10; see also Vsp 35, Lok prose (NK 110), Gylf, SnE 2005, 27, 49 and Skm, SnE 1998, I, 1, 20). The name may be derived from < *Sig-vin ‘victory-meadow’ or ‘battle-meadow’ (cf. the second element in other f. compounds such as Bjǫrgyn, Hlóðyn; AEW: Sigyn). See also Note to [All] above and Þjóð Haustl 7/2. — [4] Vǫr: The name of this goddess means ‘aware one’ (= f. of the adj. varr ‘ware, aware’; AEW: Vǫr). In Gylf (SnE 2005, 29), Vǫr is mentioned next to Vár (see l. 5) and she is called so vitr ok spurul ‘wise and enquiring’ that nothing can be concealed from her. This name does not occur in the eddic lays. — [5] Vár: The ninth Ásynja mentioned in Gylf (SnE 2005, 29), where she is said to listen to oaths and private agreements (várar pl. ‘pledges, troth’) passing between men and women and to punish those who break them. Her name is also known from Þry 30/8. Vár and Vǫr (see l. 4) are not distinguished in ms. U(10r) of SnE (Gylf). See also Note to [All] above. — [5] Syn: The name of this Ásynja is also given next to Vár and Vǫr (see ll. 4, 5) in Gylf (SnE 2005, 30), where it is said that she is appointed as a defender at assemblies in cases which she wishes to refute (cf. the weak verb synja ‘deny’ used in legal phrases; CVC: synja). Hence Syn is presented as a goddess of lawsuits, and her name means ‘denial’. She is not mentioned in any Old Norse source other than Gylf and in kennings for ‘woman’. — [7] Þrúðr: This Ásynja is the daughter of Þórr and Sif (the latter is not mentioned in the present þula), and her name means ‘strength’ (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 14, 30). As a second element in compounds, -þrúðr appears in a number of Germanic f. personal names (see AEW: þrúðr). Nothing is known about this goddess, but the kenning þjófr Þrúðar ‘the thief of Þrúðr’ for the giant Hrungnir in Bragi Rdr 1/3-4 presumably alludes to a now lost myth (cf. Clunies Ross 1994a). Þrúðr is the name of a valkyrie (Grí 36 and Gylf, SnE 2005, 30); hence this name is listed in Þul Valkyrja 2/5 as well. See also Note to Þul Kvenna II 1/4. — [7] Rán: Wife of the sea-giant Ægir, and also listed in Þul Sjóvar 4/3 (see HHund I 30/5-6, HHj 18/5, Reg prose, Skm, SnE 1998, I, 36, 41, 95, etc.). It is likely that the name of this being is identical with rán f. ‘robbery, plunder’ (if so, ‘plundering one’), although other interpretations have been suggested, e.g. that Rán (< *ráðn-) may be related to the strong verb ráða ‘rule’ or to the adj. rámr ‘hoarse’ (see AEW: rán 2). The name is very seldom used as a base-word in skaldic woman-kennings; more often it occurs as a determinant in kennings for ‘sea’. In the rímur, Rán frequently appears in kennings for ‘woman’ (Finnur Jónsson 1926-8: Rán). — [8] talið næst þeim ‘[are] listed next to them’: The A variant of this line er þeim næst talið lit. ‘is listed next to them’ (so also, approximately, B) is unmetrical and appears to represent an attempt at syntactic simplification. In R, , C, the verb er ‘is’ (earlier es) is suppressed (talið ‘listed’ is f. nom. sg. of the p. p. taliðr from telja ‘list, enumerate’). For finite verbs in the sg. with pl. subjects (here Þrúðr and Rán), see NS §70. Skj B (followed by Skald) emends to þeim es næst talið (Skald: þeim’s næst talið), which is unnecessary. SnE 1998 also adopts the R, , C reading here.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  4. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  6. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  7. CVC = Cleasby, Richard, Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and W. A. Craigie. 1957. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon.
  8. Turville-Petre, Gabriel. 1964. Myth and Religion of the North. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  9. Finnur Jónsson. 1926-8. Ordbog til de af samfund til udg. af gml. nord. litteratur udgivne Rímur samt til de af Dr. O. Jiriczek udgivne Bósarímur. SUGNL 51. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  10. NK = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1983. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. I: Text. 5th edn. Heidelberg: Winter.
  11. NS = Nygaard, Marius. 1906. Norrøn syntax. Kristiania (Oslo): Aschehoug. Rpt. 1966.
  12. SnE 1931 = Snorri Sturluson. 1931. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar. Ed. Finnur Jónsson. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
  13. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  14. Saxo 2005 = Friis-Jensen, Karsten, ed. 2005. Saxo Grammaticus: Gesta Danorum / Danmarkshistorien. Trans. Peter Zeeberg. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Det danske sprog- og litteraturselskab & Gads forlag.
  15. SnE 2005 = Snorri Sturluson. 2005. Edda: Prologue and Gylfaginning. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2nd edn. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  16. Dronke, Ursula, ed. and trans. 1997. The Poetic Edda. II: Mythological Poems. Oxford: Clarendon.
  17. Clunies Ross, Margaret. 1994a. ‘Þórr’s Honour’. In Uecker 1994, 48-76.
  18. Internal references
  19. Edith Marold 2017, ‘Snorra Edda (Prologue, Gylfaginning, Skáldskaparmál)’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  20. (forthcoming), ‘ Snorri Sturluson, Skáldskaparmál’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=112> (accessed 16 September 2021)
  21. (forthcoming), ‘ Snorri Sturluson, Gylfaginning’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=113> (accessed 16 September 2021)
  22. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Heiti valkyrja 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 970.
  23. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sjóvar heiti 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 836.
  24. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Kvenna heiti ókend 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 960.
  25. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Bragi inn gamli Boddason, Ragnarsdrápa 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 28.
  26. Not published: do not cite ()
  27. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Øxarflokkr 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 143.
  28. Not published: do not cite ()
  29. Not published: do not cite ()
  30. Not published: do not cite ()
  31. Not published: do not cite ()
  32. Not published: do not cite ()
  33. Not published: do not cite ()
  34. Not published: do not cite ()
  35. Not published: do not cite ()
  36. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘ Anonymous, Ása heiti I’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 754. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=3187> (accessed 16 September 2021)
  37. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘ Anonymous, Ása heiti II’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 760. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=3189> (accessed 16 September 2021)
  38. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘ Anonymous, Kvenna heiti ókend’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 959. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=3242> (accessed 16 September 2021)
  39. Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Kormákr Ǫgmundarson, Sigurðardrápa 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 277.
  40. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Haustlǫng 7’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 441.
Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.