Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Ásynja heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 765.
Hlín ok Nanna, Hnoss, Rindr ok Sjǫfn,
Sól ok Sága, Sigyn ok Vǫr;
þá es Vár, ok Syn verðr at nefna,
en Þrúðr ok Rán þeim næst talið.
Hlín ok Nanna, Hnoss, Rindr ok Sjǫfn, Sól ok Sága, Sigyn ok Vǫr; þá es Vár, ok verðr at nefna Syn, en Þrúðr ok Rán talið næst þeim.
Hlín and Nanna, Hnoss, Rindr and Sjǫfn, Sól and Sága, Sigyn and Vǫr; then there is Vár, and Syn must be named, and Þrúðr and Rán [are] listed next to them.
Mss: R(42v), Tˣ(44r), C(11v), A(18r), B(8v), 744ˣ(62v-63r) (SnE)
Readings:  Hlín: ‘Hl[…]’ B, ‘Hlín’ 744ˣ  Rindr: ‘rinnd’ B; ok: om. Tˣ, C  Sól: ‘s[…]l’ B, ‘sol’ 744ˣ; ok: om. Tˣ  Sigyn: ‘sygin’ Tˣ, C, ‘siggyn’ A, ‘sigunn’ B; ok: om. Tˣ  þá es (‘þa er’): ‘[…]’ B, ‘þa er’ 744ˣ; Syn: ‘s[…]’ B, ‘syn’ 744ˣ  verðr: ‘[…]’ B, ‘verðr’ 744ˣ  þeim: er þeim A, B; næst: ‘[…]e᷎st’ B, ‘ne᷎st’ 744ˣ; talið: talin C, B
Notes: [All]: Almost all the names of the goddesses listed here are commonly used as base-words in kennings for ‘woman’ and therefore also enumerated in Þul Kvenna II. The few exceptions are Hnoss (l. 2), Vár (l. 5) and Sigyn (l. 4). The former two do occur in kennings for ‘woman’, but they are not recorded in the list of Kvenna heiti ókend. Sigyn on the other hand, is never found in this type of kenning, but the name is mentioned in Þul Kvenna II. —  Hlín: This name means ‘defending one’ (cf. hlein f. ‘peaceful refuge’ and the weak verb hleina ‘save, protect’; AEW: Hlín). In Vsp 53/1-2 (see Dronke 1997, 149 and SnE 2005, 52, 70 n. 52/5), Hlín is a name for Frigg (see st. 1/3 above), although according to Gylf (SnE 2005, 30) she is Frigg’s messenger and her function is to protect people. —  Nanna: In Old Norse sources, Nanna is Baldr’s wife and the daughter of Nepr (see Notes to Þul Ása I ll. 2, 3). She did not survive her husband and died from grief at his death (SnE 2005, 26, 46-7; SnE 1998, I, 1, 17, 30). In the other version of this myth related by Saxo (Saxo 2005, I, 3, 2, 2-9, pp. 190-7), Nanna is the wife of Hǫðr (see Note to Þul Ása I l. 10). Turville-Petre (1964, 115) argues that Nanna is the name of a valkyrie and, based on nǫnnor Herians ‘the Nǫnnur of Herjann <= Óðinn> [VALKYRIES]’ in Vsp 30/10 (NK 7), he maintains that the meaning of the name is probably ‘warlike’. However, the very structure of this poetic circumlocution in which Nanna (nǫnnur pl.) is the base-word in a kenning for ‘valkyrie’, speaks against that assumption. The origin of the name is uncertain. It is either a nursery word (cf. ModSwed. dialects nanna ‘mother’) or derived from the Germanic root *nanþ- (cf. ON nenna ‘strive’; AEW: Nanna). —  Hnoss: This Ásynja is mentioned in Gylf (SnE 2005, 29) and in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 30, 43) as Freyja’s daughter (see also st. 3/7-8 below). Hnoss translates as ‘treasure’, and Snorri explains that from her name whatever is beautiful and valuable is called hnoss. See also Note to [All] above, as well as ESk Øxfl 3-5. —  Rindr: Mother of Váli, Baldr’s avenger (see Þul Ása I l. 4 and Bdr 11/1-4), and a mistress of Óðinn’s, whom he won by spells (cf. KormǪ Sigdr 3; see also Gylf, SnE 2005, 26, 30 and Skm, SnE 1998, I, 19, 30, 35-6). Rindr is probably a giantess who has been included among the goddesses, but in the story related by Saxo (Saxo 2005, I, 3, 4, 1-8, pp. 204-9), Rinda is a daughter of the king of the Ruthenians (Russians). For suggested etymologies, see AEW: Rindr. —  Sjǫfn: The name of this goddess means ‘betrothed one’, and she is mentioned in Gylf (SnE 2005, 29), where it is told that her concern is to direct people’s minds to love, and that from her name affection is called sjafni m. ‘love’. Otherwise the name Sjǫfn is found only in a few kennings for ‘woman’. —  Sól: The personification of the sun, and the sister of Máni lit. ‘moon’ (Vafþr 23/1-3). In Gylf (SnE 2005, 13, 30), it is told that Sól, although reckoned among the Ásynjur, is a human being, the daughter of Mundilfœri. The gods had taken her from her earthly husband and placed her in the sky to drive the horses that pulled the chariot of the sun. —  Sága: One of the goddesses whose name is common in skaldic kennings. Nothing is known of this Ásynja except that she dwells at a place called Søkkvabekkr ‘sunken-bench’ and is somehow associated with Óðinn. Cf. Grí 7/4-6 (NK 58): þar þau Óðinn oc Sága | drecca um alla daga, | glǫð, ór gullnom kerom ‘there Óðinn and Sága, glad, drink every day from golden cups’. In Gylf (SnE 2005, 29) her name is given right after the name of Óðinn’s wife Frigg, and it is possible that Sága was identified with Frigg (cf. LP: Sága). This name is related either to the strong verb sjá ‘see’ (‘seeress’(?)) or to saga f. ‘story, legend’ (‘proclaiming one’(?)). —  Sigyn: The wife of Loki (Þul Ása II l. 10; see also Vsp 35, Lok prose (NK 110), Gylf, SnE 2005, 27, 49 and Skm, SnE 1998, I, 1, 20). The name may be derived from < *Sig-vin ‘victory-meadow’ or ‘battle-meadow’ (cf. the second element in other f. compounds such as Bjǫrgyn, Hlóðyn; AEW: Sigyn). See also Note to [All] above and Þjóð Haustl 7/2. —  Vǫr: The name of this goddess means ‘aware one’ (= f. of the adj. varr ‘ware, aware’; AEW: Vǫr). In Gylf (SnE 2005, 29), Vǫr is mentioned next to Vár (see l. 5) and she is called so vitr ok spurul ‘wise and enquiring’ that nothing can be concealed from her. This name does not occur in the eddic lays. —  Vár: The ninth Ásynja mentioned in Gylf (SnE 2005, 29), where she is said to listen to oaths and private agreements (várar pl. ‘pledges, troth’) passing between men and women and to punish those who break them. Her name is also known from Þry 30/8. Vár and Vǫr (see l. 4) are not distinguished in ms. U(10r) of SnE (Gylf). See also Note to [All] above. —  Syn: The name of this Ásynja is also given next to Vár and Vǫr (see ll. 4, 5) in Gylf (SnE 2005, 30), where it is said that she is appointed as a defender at assemblies in cases which she wishes to refute (cf. the weak verb synja ‘deny’ used in legal phrases; CVC: synja). Hence Syn is presented as a goddess of lawsuits, and her name means ‘denial’. She is not mentioned in any Old Norse source other than Gylf and in kennings for ‘woman’. —  Þrúðr: This Ásynja is the daughter of Þórr and Sif (the latter is not mentioned in the present þula), and her name means ‘strength’ (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 14, 30). As a second element in compounds, -þrúðr appears in a number of Germanic f. personal names (see AEW: þrúðr). Nothing is known about this goddess, but the kenning þjófr Þrúðar ‘the thief of Þrúðr’ for the giant Hrungnir in Bragi Rdr 1/3-4 presumably alludes to a now lost myth (cf. Clunies Ross 1994a). Þrúðr is the name of a valkyrie (Grí 36 and Gylf, SnE 2005, 30); hence this name is listed in Þul Valkyrja 2/5 as well. See also Note to Þul Kvenna II 1/4. —  Rán: Wife of the sea-giant Ægir, and also listed in Þul Sjóvar 4/3 (see HHund I 30/5-6, HHj 18/5, Reg prose, Skm, SnE 1998, I, 36, 41, 95, etc.). It is likely that the name of this being is identical with rán f. ‘robbery, plunder’ (if so, ‘plundering one’), although other interpretations have been suggested, e.g. that Rán (< *ráðn-) may be related to the strong verb ráða ‘rule’ or to the adj. rámr ‘hoarse’ (see AEW: rán 2). The name is very seldom used as a base-word in skaldic woman-kennings; more often it occurs as a determinant in kennings for ‘sea’. In the rímur, Rán frequently appears in kennings for ‘woman’ (Finnur Jónsson 1926-8: Rán). —  talið næst þeim ‘[are] listed next to them’: The A variant of this line er þeim næst talið lit. ‘is listed next to them’ (so also, approximately, B) is unmetrical and appears to represent an attempt at syntactic simplification. In R, Tˣ, C, the verb er ‘is’ (earlier es) is suppressed (talið ‘listed’ is f. nom. sg. of the p. p. taliðr from telja ‘list, enumerate’). For finite verbs in the sg. with pl. subjects (here Þrúðr and Rán), see NS §70. Skj B (followed by Skald) emends to þeim es næst talið (Skald: þeim’s næst talið), which is unnecessary. SnE 1998 also adopts the R, Tˣ, C reading here.
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