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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Jǫtna I 3III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Jǫtna heiti I 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 710.

Anonymous ÞulurJǫtna heiti I
234

Geirrøðr, Fyrnir,         Galarr, Þrívaldi,
Fjǫlverkr, Geitir,         Fleggr, Blapþvari,
Fornjótr, Sprettingr,         Fjalarr, Stígandi,
Sómr ok Svásuðr,         Svárangr, Skrati.

Geirrøðr, Fyrnir, Galarr, Þrívaldi, Fjǫlverkr, Geitir, Fleggr, Blapþvari, Fornjótr, Sprettingr, Fjalarr, Stígandi, Sómr ok Svásuðr, Svárangr, Skrati.

Geirrøðr, Fyrnir, Galarr, Þrívaldi, Fjǫlverkr, Geitir, Fleggr, Blapþvari, Fornjótr, Sprettingr, Fjalarr, Stígandi, Sómr and Svásuðr, Svárangr, Skrati.

Mss: R(42r), Tˣ(43v), C(11r), A(17v), B(8r), 744ˣ(56v-57r) (SnE)

Readings: [1] ‑røðr: ‑rauðr C, ‘‑ro᷎[…]’ B, ‘‑ro᷎ðr’ 744ˣ;    Fyrnir: ‘fvrnir’ A, ‘[…]nir’ B, ‘furnir’ 744ˣ    [2] Galarr: ‘gala[…]’ B, galarr 744ˣ;    Þrívaldi: so Tˣ, 744ˣ, ‘þvivaldi’ R, ‘þrífalldi’ C, ‘þrifalldi’ A, ‘[…]’ B    [3] Fjǫlverkr: ‘fjo᷎lu[…]’ B, ‘fio᷎luerkr’ 744ˣ    [4] Fleggr: flekkr C, ‘flegr’ A, ‘[…]le᷎gr’ B, ‘fle᷎gr’ 744ˣ;    Blap‑: ‘hláp‑’ B    [5] Fornjótr: ‘[…]orniotr’ B, ‘forníotr’ 744ˣ;    Sprettingr: ‘sp[…]gr’ B, sprettingr 744ˣ    [6] Fjalarr: ‘fial[…]’ B, ‘fíalarr’ 744ˣ;    Stígandi: ‘[…]g[…]de’ B, ‘stigande’ 744ˣ    [7] Sómr: samr C, ‘[…]mr’ A, ‘[…]’ B, ‘suámr ok’ 744ˣ;    Svásuðr: ‘s[…]sudr’ B, ‘suasudr’ 744ˣ    [8] Svárangr: ‘[…]nngr’ B, ‘suo᷎ranngr’ 744ˣ;    Skrati: skratti Tˣ, A, B, skati C

Editions: Skj AI, 654-5, Skj BI, 659, Skald I, 323; SnE 1848-87, I, 549-50, II, 470, 553, 615, SnE 1931, 195, SnE 1998, I, 111.

Notes: [1] Geirrøðr: This giant was killed in his own house by Þórr. According to the myth told in Eil Þdr and Skm (SnE 1998, I, 24-5), Geirrøðr imprisoned Loki and compelled him to incite Þórr to visit his home without his girdle of strength and his hammer. Despite these measures, Þórr defeated Geirrøðr and killed him. Geirrøðr is also the name of a giant in Ǫrvar-Odds saga (ch. 23, FSN II, 253-4) and the name of other legendary characters (e.g. Óðinn’s opponent in Grí). The name is derived from Gmc *Gaiza-friduz (OHG Gāri-fred) with the elements ON geirr- ‘spear’ and ‑frøðr (cf. friðr ‘peace’), and it means ‘spear-security’ (Finnur Jónsson 1934-5, 303; AEW: geirr). The name occurs in several mythical kennings (LP: Geirrøðr). — [1] Fyrnir: A hap. leg. Cf. the weak verb fyrnask ‘get old’ and forn ‘old’, an adj. often applied to giants (Finnur Jónsson 1934-5, 300). — [2] Galarr: The name is derived from the strong verb gala ‘crow, chant, sing’. As a giant’s name, the heiti occurs only here. In Skm (SnE 1998, I, 3) Galarr and his brother Fjalarr (see l. 6 below) are the dwarfs associated with the myth of the mead of poetry, but neither name is mentioned in Þul Dverga. — [2] Þrívaldi: Nothing is known about this giant except that he had nine heads (cf. Bragi Frag 3/2 and Note to ll. 2 and 4) and was killed by Þórr (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 14). The name means either ‘very mighty one’ or ‘one who is as mighty as three others’ (cf. Þrígeitir, st. 2/6). — [3] Fjǫlverkr: A hap. leg.; perhaps ‘much-working one’ or ‘one doing many things’. Cf. Harðverkr (st. 2/1). — [3] Geitir: Cf. Þrígeitir (st. 2/6). This is also the name of a sea-king (see Þul Sækonunga 1/7), and it is attested in kennings (LP: Geitir 1.). — [4] Fleggr: The word is possibly derived from flagð, flegða ‘ogre’ (AEW: fleggr) or from *flagjarr (cf. flag n. ‘turfless ground’ and New Norw. flag ‘flat rock’); hence perhaps ‘stone-dweller’ (Finnur Jónsson 1934-5, 300). There is only one ambiguous occurrence of this name in poetry (Obreið Illdr 2/6V (Eb 2)). — [4] Blapþvari: A hap. leg. The meaning of blap- is unclear. De Vries (AEW: Blapþvari) suggests that it might be cognate with ModEngl. blab ‘chatter’ (OHG blabbizōn), but that explanation hardly sheds light on the meaning of the name as a whole. The second part, ‑þvari m. ‘borer, gimlet’, is a frequent element in poetic names and heiti. Cf. the horse-heiti bǫlþvari ‘evil borer’ (Þul Hesta 3/5), the dwarf-name Dólgþvari (SnE 2005, 16), the ox-heiti eyþvari ‘island-borer’ (Þul Øxna 1/6), the sword-heiti vindþvari ‘wind-borer’ (Þul Sverða 6/4), etc. The B variant hlap- cannot be construed as an Old Norse word (Finnur Jónsson 1934-5, 300). — [5] Fornjótr: Father of the sea-giant Ægir and also the progenitor of wind and fire (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 39 and Notes to Þul Elds 1/3-4, Þul Veðra 1/8, Sveinn Norðrdr 2/2). In Hversu Nóregr byggðisk (Flat 1860-8, I, 21), Fornjótr is mentioned along with his three sons Hlér (= Ægir), Logi (i.e. ‘fire’) and Kári (i.e. ‘wind’). The origin of the name is unclear. Finnur Jónsson (1934-5, 300) takes it to mean ‘desolator’ (the negative prefix for- and the agent noun ‑njótr ‘enjoyer, user’), while Kock (1899, 103-4) derives it from *forn-þjótr ‘old whistler’ (cf. þjótr m. ‘howler’ as a heiti for ‘wind’, Þul Veðra 2/8). Hellquist (1903) argues that the name means Urwesen ‘primeval being’ and he compares this giant with Ymir (see also AEW: Fornjótr). The name is found in poetic sources (LP: Fornjótr). — [5] Sprettingr: A hap. leg., most likely from the strong verb spretta ‘spring, run’; hence, ‘runner, sprinter’. — [6] Fjalarr: Perhaps lit. ‘concealer’, from the strong verb fela ‘hide, conceal’. Cf. Fjǫlnir among Óðinn’s names (see AEW: Fjalarr; Noreen 1892, 198; Kahle 1903, 143-4). As a giant-name, Fjalarr occurs twice in eddic poems (as another name for Útgarðaloki in Hárb 26/9 and for Suttungr in Hávm 14/3). It is also the name of other mythical beings, such as a dwarf and a giant’s rooster (Vsp 16/3, 42/8). — [6] Stígandi: Lit. ‘stepping one’ or ‘striding one’ (pres. part. of the strong verb stíga ‘step, stride’). A giant of this name is not mentioned elsewhere, but Stígandi is also a pers. n. (Gǫngu-Hrólfs saga ch. 6, FSN III, 255) and the name of a ship (Vatnsdœla saga ch. 16, ÍF 8, 43-7). — [7] Sómr: Cf. the weak verb sóma ‘beseem’, sómi m. ‘honour’; hence perhaps ‘honourable one’ or ‘seemly one’. It is also a heiti for weapons (a bow in Þul Boga l. 4; cf. sómi, the weak m. form of sómr, a sword-heiti in Þul Sverða 1/8), but none of these heiti appears elsewhere. — [7] Svásuðr: The father of Sumarr ‘summer’ (Vafþr 27/3). The name means ‘lovely, delightful one’ (for its etymology and cognates, see AEW: sváss). According to Gylf (SnE 2005, 21), the adj. svásligr ‘pleasant, delightful’ is derived from the name of this blissful giant. — [8] Svárangr: The name is known from Hárb 29/4 (NK 83) where synir Svárangs ‘the sons of Svárangr’ are Þórr’s enemies. The first part of the cpd is derived from the adj. svárr ‘heavy, grave’, while ‑angr must be a suffix (Finnur Jónsson 1934-5, 299). — [8] Skrati: Most likely the same word as skratti m. ‘wizard, monster’ (so , A, B). It is impossible to say whether Skrat(t)i is a common noun or a proper name here, and a giant of this name is not known from other sources. The C variant skati m. ‘lordly man’ must be a scribal error.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. FSN = Rafn, Carl Christian, ed. 1829-30. Fornaldar sögur nordrlanda. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  3. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  4. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  6. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  7. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  8. NK = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1983. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. I: Text. 5th edn. Heidelberg: Winter.
  9. SnE 1931 = Snorri Sturluson. 1931. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar. Ed. Finnur Jónsson. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
  10. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  11. SnE 2005 = Snorri Sturluson. 2005. Edda: Prologue and Gylfaginning. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2nd edn. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  12. ÍF 8 = Vatnsdœla saga. Ed. Einar Ólafur Sveinsson. 1939.
  13. Hellquist, Elof. 1903. ‘Om Fornjótr’. ANF 19, 134-40.
  14. Noreen, Adolf. 1892. ‘Mytiska beståndsdelar i Ynglingatal’. In Uppsalastudier tillegnade Sophus Bugge på hans 60-åra födelsedag den 5 januari 1893. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 194-225.
  15. Finnur Jónsson. 1934-5. ‘Þulur: Søkonge- og jættenavneremserne’. APS 9, 289-308.
  16. Kahle, Bernhard. 1903. ‘Altwestnordische Namenstudien’. IF 14, 133-224.
  17. Kock, Axel. 1899. ‘Etymologisch-mythologische Untersuchungen’. IF 10, 90-111.
  18. Internal references
  19. 2017, ‘ Anonymous, Ǫrvar-Odds saga’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 804. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=35> (accessed 18 September 2021)
  20. 2017, ‘ Anonymous, Gǫngu-Hrólfs saga’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 298. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=89> (accessed 18 September 2021)
  21. (forthcoming), ‘ Snorri Sturluson, Skáldskaparmál’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=112> (accessed 18 September 2021)
  22. (forthcoming), ‘ Snorri Sturluson, Gylfaginning’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=113> (accessed 18 September 2021)
  23. (forthcoming), ‘ Anonymous, Vatnsdœla saga’ in Tarrin Wills, Kari Ellen Gade and Margaret Clunies Ross (eds), Poetry in Sagas of Icelanders. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 5. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=128> (accessed 18 September 2021)
  24. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sækonunga heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 678.
  25. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 790.
  26. Edith Marold with the assistance of Vivian Busch, Jana Krüger, Ann-Dörte Kyas and Katharina Seidel, translated from German by John Foulks 2017, ‘ Eilífr Goðrúnarson, Þórsdrápa’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 68. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=1170> (accessed 18 September 2021)
  27. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 6’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 800.
  28. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Øxna heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 885.
  29. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Veðra heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 918.
  30. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Veðra heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 919.
  31. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Elds heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 921.
  32. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Hesta heiti 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 937.
  33. Not published: do not cite (Anon (Eb) 2V (Eb 36))
  34. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Bragi inn gamli Boddason, Fragments 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 58.
  35. Not published: do not cite ()
  36. Not published: do not cite ()
  37. Not published: do not cite ()
  38. Not published: do not cite ()
  39. Not published: do not cite ()
  40. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘ Anonymous, Boga heiti’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 821. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=3199> (accessed 18 September 2021)
  41. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘ Anonymous, Dverga heiti’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 692. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=3227> (accessed 18 September 2021)
  42. Not published: do not cite (Obreið Illdr 2V (Eb 2))
  43. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Sveinn, Norðrsetudrápa 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 400.
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