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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Valkyrja 1III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Heiti valkyrja 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 969.

Anonymous ÞulurHeiti valkyrja
12

Man ek valkyrjur         Viðris nefna:
Hrist, Mist, Herja,         Hlǫkk, Geiravǫr,
Gǫll, Hjǫrþrimul,         Guðr, Herfjǫtur,
Skuld, Geirǫnul,         Skǫgul ok Randgnið.

Ek man nefna valkyrjur Viðris: Hrist, Mist, Herja, Hlǫkk, Geiravǫr, Gǫll, Hjǫrþrimul, Guðr, Herfjǫtur, Skuld, Geirǫnul, Skǫgul ok Randgnið.

I can name Viðrir’s <= Óðinn’s> valkyries: Hrist, Mist, Herja, Hlǫkk, Geiravǫr, Gǫll, Hjǫrþrimul, Gunnr, Herfjǫtur, Skuld, Geirǫnul, Skǫgul and Randgnið.

Mss: A(21r) (SnE)

Editions: Skj AI, 689, Skj BI, 678, Skald I, 343; SnE 1848-87, II, 490.

Notes: [2] Viðris ‘Viðrir’s <= Óðinn’s>’: This is a name for Óðinn, which is interpreted as ‘one who rules over the weather (or winds)’. The name is explained in Þáttr Hálfdanar svarta (Flat 1860-8, I, 564): þui er hann kalladr Uidrir at þeir sogdu hann uedrum rada ‘he is called Viðrir because they said that he governs the winds’. See also Falk (1924, 34). Viðrir is frequently used in poetry (see also Lok 26/5, HHund I 13/7, Gylf, SnE 2005, 8), but is mentioned neither in the catalogue of the names of this god in Grí 46-50, 54 nor in Þul Óðins. — [3] Hrist, Mist: The literal meaning of these names is ‘shaking one’ (cf. the weak verb hrista ‘shake’) and ‘mist’ (probably from mistr m. ‘mist, fog’; see AEW: mistr). As in the present þula, in Grí 36/1 (NK 64) the pair Hrist oc Mist ‘Hrist and Mist’ are mentioned at the very beginning of the list of valkyries who wait on the warriors (einherjar) in Valhǫll (so also Gylf, SnE 2005, 30). Both names are also listed among meyjar Óðins ‘Óðinn’s maids’ in Þul Ásynja (see st. 4/4, 6 and Note to [All] there). — [3] Herja: This name may means ‘harrying one’ or ‘one waging war’ (cf. the weak verb herja ‘harry, plunder, wage war’). Herja is used in a kenning for ‘giantess’ in Þjóð Haustl 19/1, but it does not appear to be the name of a valkyrie in that context (see LP: 2. herja). Otherwise the name is not known from other sources. — [4] Hlǫkk: This name translates as ‘scream’ (cf. the common noun hlǫkk f. ‘crash’ and the weak verb hlakka ‘scream, screech’). It is also listed in Grí 36/5 and Þul Ásynja 4/4. The word is frequently used in poetry both as the name of a valkyrie and, less frequently, as a term for ‘battle’. — [4] Geiravǫr: Lit. ‘spear-Vǫr’. This valkyrie-name does not occur elsewhere. Vǫr is the name of a goddess (see Note to Þul Ásynja 2/4). — [5] Gǫll: This name means ‘shriek’. See Note to Þul Orrostu 1/3. — [5] Hjǫrþrimul: Lit. ‘one who makes noise with a sword’. This valkyrie-name is mentioned in Anon Darr 3/2V (Nj 55) but not found elsewhere. The second part of this cpd, ‑þrimul, is related to þrima f. ‘sound, battle’ (see also Þul Orrostu 2/8 and Hjalmþrimul in st. 2/8 below). — [6] Guðr: Or Gunnr. This valkyrie is a personification of battle, since guðr/gunnr f. is the most common poetic term for ‘battle’. The heiti is conspicuously absent from the þula that enumerates heiti for ‘battle’ (Þul Orrostu), however. As the name of a valkyrie, Guðr/Gunnr is used in kennings for ‘woman’ and ‘battle’; in other types of kennings it is often difficult to determine whether the word denotes ‘valkyrie’ or is a heiti for ‘battle’. This valkyrie is mentioned in Vsp 30/7 and in Gylf (SnE 2005, 30), where it is said that Guðr, together with Rota and Skuld, ride to choose the slain and decide the outcome of battles. — [6] Herfjǫtur: Lit. ‘army-fetterer’. The name is also mentioned in Grí 36/5, but it does not occur in other sources. The second part of this cpd name, ‑fjǫtur f., is most likely derived from fjǫturr m. ‘fetter’. Ms. U(10v) of SnE (Gylf) has the variant Herfjǫtra f., which has been adopted in Skj B (but not in Skald). — [7] Skuld: See Note to Þul Ásynja 4/6. — [7] Geirǫnul: This name means ‘one rushing ahead with a spear’ (the second element is cognate with ModIcel. ana ‘rush on’; cf. AEW: Geirǫlnir, Geirǫnul). The name is also listed in Grí 36/6 (NK 64), where the second element has a different form (-ǫlul in Codex Regius and -rǫmul in ms. A of SnE). The word is otherwise not attested in poetry. — [8] Skǫgul: This name means ‘projecting one’ (cf. the weak verb skaga ‘project, protude’). Cf. Geirskǫgul in st. 2/2 and Note there. See also Þul Ásynja 4/4 as well as the list of valkyries in Grí 36/3 and Vsp 30/6. Skǫgul is one of the valkyries in Eyv HákI (see Notes to sts 2/1 and 2/2 below). — [8] Randgnið: A hap. leg.; cf. Ráðgnið (st. 2/1). According to Finnur Jónsson (LP: Randgríðr), ‑gnið is a corrupt reading and he suggests Randgríð(r) ‘shield-Gríðr’, based on the pair Randgríð oc Ráðgríð ‘Randgríð and Ráðgríð’ in Grí 36/7 (NK 64). In Skj B, Finnur gives Randgníð, however, and Skald has Randgnið (adopted in the present edn). The second part of the name, ‑gnið f., may be of the same origin as the sea-heiti gniðr m. ‘murmur’ (see Note to Þul Sjóvar 2/7), possibly either connected with the weak verb gniða ‘rub’ or related to gnauða ‘resound, rumble, make noise’ (cf. AEW: gniðr), hence perhaps ‘shield-din’.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  4. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  6. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  7. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  8. NK = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1983. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. I: Text. 5th edn. Heidelberg: Winter.
  9. SnE 2005 = Snorri Sturluson. 2005. Edda: Prologue and Gylfaginning. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2nd edn. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  10. Falk, Hjalmar. 1924. Odensheite. Skrifter utg. av Videnskapsselskapet i Kristiania. II. Hist.-filos. kl. 1924, 10. Kristiania (Oslo): Dybwad.
  11. Internal references
  12. Edith Marold 2017, ‘Snorra Edda (Prologue, Gylfaginning, Skáldskaparmál)’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  13. Not published: do not cite (Anon Darr 3V (Nj 55))
  14. Not published: do not cite (GylfIII)
  15. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Ásynja heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 765.
  16. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Ásynja heiti 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 770.
  17. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Orrostu heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 786.
  18. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Orrostu heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 788.
  19. R. D. Fulk 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Hákonarmál’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 171.
  20. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sjóvar heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 835.
  21. Not published: do not cite ()
  22. Not published: do not cite ()
  23. Not published: do not cite ()
  24. Not published: do not cite ()
  25. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Ásynja heiti’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 762.
  26. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Orrostu heiti’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 786.
  27. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Óðins nǫfn’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 731.
  28. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Haustlǫng 19’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 460.
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