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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Pl 49VII

Jonna Louis-Jensen and Tarrin Wills (eds) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Plácitusdrápa 49’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 211-12.

Anonymous PoemsPlácitusdrápa
484950

Hyr ‘of the fire’

hyrr (noun m.): fire < hyrgildir (noun m.)

[1] Hyrgildir: ‘hyrgi[...]’ 673b, ‘hyrgilldir’ 673bÞH, ‘hyrgilldr’ 673bHE, ‘hyrgilder’ 673bFJ

kennings

Hrafnvíns hyr-gildir
‘The appraiser of the fire of raven-wine ’
   = WARRIOR

raven-wine → BLOOD
the fire of the BLOOD → SWORD
The appraiser of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

Hyr ‘of the fire’

hyrr (noun m.): fire < hyrgildir (noun m.)

[1] Hyrgildir: ‘hyrgi[...]’ 673b, ‘hyrgilldir’ 673bÞH, ‘hyrgilldr’ 673bHE, ‘hyrgilder’ 673bFJ

kennings

Hrafnvíns hyr-gildir
‘The appraiser of the fire of raven-wine ’
   = WARRIOR

raven-wine → BLOOD
the fire of the BLOOD → SWORD
The appraiser of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

gildir ‘The appraiser’

gildir (noun m.): payer, supporter < hyrgildir (noun m.)

[1] Hyrgildir: ‘hyrgi[...]’ 673b, ‘hyrgilldir’ 673bÞH, ‘hyrgilldr’ 673bHE, ‘hyrgilder’ 673bFJ

kennings

Hrafnvíns hyr-gildir
‘The appraiser of the fire of raven-wine ’
   = WARRIOR

raven-wine → BLOOD
the fire of the BLOOD → SWORD
The appraiser of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

‘…’

(non-lexical)

[1] …: ‘[...]’ 673b

notes

[1] : Sveinbjörn proposed fekk ‘got, granted’ for this lacuna, but there is no evidence from the hendingar or alliteration.

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hvíldar ‘rest’

2. hvíla (verb): rest

Close

hrafn ‘of raven’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven < hrafnvín (noun n.)

kennings

Hrafnvíns hyr-gildir
‘The appraiser of the fire of raven-wine ’
   = WARRIOR

raven-wine → BLOOD
the fire of the BLOOD → SWORD
The appraiser of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

hrafn ‘of raven’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven < hrafnvín (noun n.)

kennings

Hrafnvíns hyr-gildir
‘The appraiser of the fire of raven-wine ’
   = WARRIOR

raven-wine → BLOOD
the fire of the BLOOD → SWORD
The appraiser of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

hrafn ‘of raven’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven < hrafnvín (noun n.)

kennings

Hrafnvíns hyr-gildir
‘The appraiser of the fire of raven-wine ’
   = WARRIOR

raven-wine → BLOOD
the fire of the BLOOD → SWORD
The appraiser of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

víns ‘wine’

vín (noun n.; °-s; -): wine < hrafnvín (noun n.)

kennings

Hrafnvíns hyr-gildir
‘The appraiser of the fire of raven-wine ’
   = WARRIOR

raven-wine → BLOOD
the fire of the BLOOD → SWORD
The appraiser of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

víns ‘wine’

vín (noun n.; °-s; -): wine < hrafnvín (noun n.)

kennings

Hrafnvíns hyr-gildir
‘The appraiser of the fire of raven-wine ’
   = WARRIOR

raven-wine → BLOOD
the fire of the BLOOD → SWORD
The appraiser of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

víns ‘wine’

vín (noun n.; °-s; -): wine < hrafnvín (noun n.)

kennings

Hrafnvíns hyr-gildir
‘The appraiser of the fire of raven-wine ’
   = WARRIOR

raven-wine → BLOOD
the fire of the BLOOD → SWORD
The appraiser of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

garpr ‘the champion’

garpr (noun m.): champion

[3] garpr: ‘garp[...]’ 673b, ‘garpr’ 673bÞH, 673bFJ

Close

þ… ‘of þ…’

(non-lexical)

[3] þ…: ‘þ[...]’ 673b, 673bÞH, ‘þuþr’(?) 673bHE, ‘þro(t)’(?) 673bFJ

kennings

þ… þingveljǫndum
‘assembly-choosers of þ…’
   = WARRIORS

the assembly of þ… → BATTLE
the choosers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[3] þ…: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) supplied Þrós ‘Þrór’s <= Óðinn>’ to provide a determinant for the battle-kenning. He earlier (1887) used Þrótts (another name for Óðinn); Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1833) emended to þýðr ‘gentle’.

Close

þ… ‘of þ…’

(non-lexical)

[3] þ…: ‘þ[...]’ 673b, 673bÞH, ‘þuþr’(?) 673bHE, ‘þro(t)’(?) 673bFJ

kennings

þ… þingveljǫndum
‘assembly-choosers of þ…’
   = WARRIORS

the assembly of þ… → BATTLE
the choosers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[3] þ…: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) supplied Þrós ‘Þrór’s <= Óðinn>’ to provide a determinant for the battle-kenning. He earlier (1887) used Þrótts (another name for Óðinn); Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1833) emended to þýðr ‘gentle’.

Close

þing ‘of the assembly’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly < þingveljandi (noun m.)

kennings

þ… þingveljǫndum
‘assembly-choosers of þ…’
   = WARRIORS

the assembly of þ… → BATTLE
the choosers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

þing ‘of the assembly’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly < þingveljandi (noun m.)

kennings

þ… þingveljǫndum
‘assembly-choosers of þ…’
   = WARRIORS

the assembly of þ… → BATTLE
the choosers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

veljǫndum ‘the choosers’

veljandi (noun m.): [choosers, chooser] < þingveljandi (noun m.)

kennings

þ… þingveljǫndum
‘assembly-choosers of þ…’
   = WARRIORS

the assembly of þ… → BATTLE
the choosers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

Létu ‘’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[5] Létu of eins: ‘[...]et[...](ei)[...]’(?) 673b, ‘sett or eins’ 673bÞH, ‘sette of eins’ 673bFJ

Close

of ‘’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[5] Létu of eins: ‘[...]et[...](ei)[...]’(?) 673b, ‘sett or eins’ 673bÞH, ‘sette of eins’ 673bFJ;    of: ‘of’ or ‘or’ 673bHE

Close

eins ‘of a’

2. einn (pron.; °decl. cf. einn num.): one, alone

[5] Létu of eins: ‘[...]et[...](ei)[...]’(?) 673b, ‘sett or eins’ 673bÞH, ‘sette of eins’ 673bFJ

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hvers ‘certain’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

[5] hvers: ‘[...]ve[...]s’ 673b, ‘hvers’ 673bÞH, ‘hve[...]’ 673bFJ

Close

ýtis ‘launcher’

ýtir (noun m.): giver

kennings

ýtis kapla brimis.
‘launcher of the horses of the sea.’
   = SEAFARER

the horses of the sea. → SHIPS
launcher of SHIPS → SEAFARER
Close

apaldr ‘the orchard’

apaldr (noun m.; °apaldrs, dat. apaldri; apaldar, dat. apǫldrum/apǫldum, acc. apaldra/apalda): [orchard] < apaldrsgarðr (noun m.): °orchard

[6] apaldr‑: ‘apald[...]’ 673b, ‘apaldrs’ 673bÞH, ‘apaldrer’ 673bFJ

Close

brimis ‘of the sea’

brimi (noun n.): [wave]

kennings

ýtis kapla brimis.
‘launcher of the horses of the sea.’
   = SEAFARER

the horses of the sea. → SHIPS
launcher of SHIPS → SEAFARER
Close

brimis ‘of the sea’

brimi (noun n.): [wave]

kennings

ýtis kapla brimis.
‘launcher of the horses of the sea.’
   = SEAFARER

the horses of the sea. → SHIPS
launcher of SHIPS → SEAFARER
Close

kapla ‘of the horses’

kapall (noun m.; °; kaplar): [horses]

kennings

ýtis kapla brimis.
‘launcher of the horses of the sea.’
   = SEAFARER

the horses of the sea. → SHIPS
launcher of SHIPS → SEAFARER
Close

kapla ‘of the horses’

kapall (noun m.; °; kaplar): [horses]

kennings

ýtis kapla brimis.
‘launcher of the horses of the sea.’
   = SEAFARER

the horses of the sea. → SHIPS
launcher of SHIPS → SEAFARER
Close

lundar ‘of the tree’

1. lundr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar): grove, tree

[7] lundar búðum lýðar: ‘l[...] b[...]þum l[...]þar’ 673b, ‘lattas [...] þ[...]v lyþer’ 673bÞH, ‘[...]u lyþar’ 673bFJ;    lundar: ‘lattat’ 673bHE

kennings

lundar lungs
‘of the tree of the ship ’
   = SEAFARER

the tree of the ship → SEAFARER
Close

búðum ‘camp’

búð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): booth, dwelling

[7] lundar búðum lýðar: ‘l[...] b[...]þum l[...]þar’ 673b, ‘lattas [...] þ[...]v lyþer’ 673bÞH, ‘[...]u lyþar’ 673bFJ

notes

[5-8]: All the conjectural emendations in this helmingr derive from Jón Helgason 1932-3, except lýðar, originally proposed by Finnur Jónsson (1887).

Close

lýðar ‘The troops’

lýðr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ir): one of the people

[7] lundar búðum lýðar: ‘l[...] b[...]þum l[...]þar’ 673b, ‘lattas [...] þ[...]v lyþer’ 673bÞH, ‘[...]u lyþar’ 673bFJ

Close

lungs ‘of the ship’

lung (noun n.): longship

kennings

lundar lungs
‘of the tree of the ship ’
   = SEAFARER

the tree of the ship → SEAFARER
Close

umbhverfis ‘around’

umhverfis (prep.): [around]

Close

slungit ‘pitched’

3. sløngva (verb): cast, sling

[8] slungit: ‘stungit’ 673bÞH, 673bFJ

notes

[8] slungit ‘pitched’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1833) and Finnur Jónsson (1887) both read stungit ‘stuck’ here, but Jón Helgason pointed out that what appears to be a line coming off the second letter is in fact part of the following letter ‘u’. Jón also points to a comparable phrase in Knýtl (ÍF 35, 292).

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[5-8]: Words in this helmingr correspond to vocabulary in either the A or C texts of the prose saga, including apaldrgarð (l. 6, a word not used elsewhere in skaldic poetry, providing aðalhending with kapla; the C text has aldingarðr as in Pl st. 24/7) and umbhverfis (l. 8) (Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxi).

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