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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Pl 1VII

Jonna Louis-Jensen and Tarrin Wills (eds) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Plácitusdrápa 1’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 182.

Anonymous PoemsPlácitusdrápa
12

fjǫrnis ‘of the helmet’

fjǫrnir (noun m.): helmet

kennings

frægr valdr fjǫrnis foldar
‘the renowned ruler of the helmet of the earth ’
   = God

the helmet of the earth → SKY/HEAVEN
the renowned ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

fjǫrnis ‘of the helmet’

fjǫrnir (noun m.): helmet

kennings

frægr valdr fjǫrnis foldar
‘the renowned ruler of the helmet of the earth ’
   = God

the helmet of the earth → SKY/HEAVEN
the renowned ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

valdr ‘ruler’

valdr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

frægr valdr fjǫrnis foldar
‘the renowned ruler of the helmet of the earth ’
   = God

the helmet of the earth → SKY/HEAVEN
the renowned ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

kvað ‘spoke’

2. kveðja (verb): say, greet

[3] kvað: ‘q[...]’ 673b, ‘quaþſt’ 673bÞH, ‘quaþ’ 673bHE, 673bFJ

Close

foldar ‘of the earth’

fold (noun f.): land

[3] foldar: ‘[...]’ 673b

kennings

frægr valdr fjǫrnis foldar
‘the renowned ruler of the helmet of the earth ’
   = God

the helmet of the earth → SKY/HEAVEN
the renowned ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

foldar ‘of the earth’

fold (noun f.): land

[3] foldar: ‘[...]’ 673b

kennings

frægr valdr fjǫrnis foldar
‘the renowned ruler of the helmet of the earth ’
   = God

the helmet of the earth → SKY/HEAVEN
the renowned ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

frægr ‘the renowned’

frægr (adj.; °-jan/-an; compar. -ri, superl. -jastr/-astr/-str): famous, renowned

kennings

frægr valdr fjǫrnis foldar
‘the renowned ruler of the helmet of the earth ’
   = God

the helmet of the earth → SKY/HEAVEN
the renowned ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

þér ‘you’

þú (pron.; °gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik): you

[4] þér: ‘er’ 673b

notes

[4] þér ‘you’: ér is interpreted as the dat. sing. þér by Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1833, but cf. Finnur Jónsson 1887, 245 and Nj 1875-8, II, 46-7.

Close

Mjúks ‘of the smooth’

mjúkr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): gentle, humble

kennings

boði mjúks morðlinns,
‘Messenger of the smooth battle-serpent, ’
   = WARRIOR

the smooth battle-serpent, → SWORD
Messenger of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

Mjúks ‘of the smooth’

mjúkr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): gentle, humble

kennings

boði mjúks morðlinns,
‘Messenger of the smooth battle-serpent, ’
   = WARRIOR

the smooth battle-serpent, → SWORD
Messenger of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

mann ‘’

maðr (noun m.): man, person < mannraun (noun f.): test of manhood

[5] mannraun: ‘mannra[...]’ 673b, mannraun 673bHE

notes

[5] mannraun ‘ordeal, trial of strength’: Also st. 12/4, when Plácitus is tried by having all his animals and household perish; in this instance mannraun also appears in the C text of the prose saga (Tucker 1998, 31, l. 101). The word is also used in Anon Mhkv 7/8III of the ordeal of the biblical hero Eleazar (Eljárnir), who was crushed beneath an elephant (1 Macc. VI.43-7).

Close

raun ‘an ordeal’

raun (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): ordeal, proof, experience < mannraun (noun f.): test of manhood

[5] mannraun: ‘mannra[...]’ 673b, mannraun 673bHE

notes

[5] mannraun ‘ordeal, trial of strength’: Also st. 12/4, when Plácitus is tried by having all his animals and household perish; in this instance mannraun also appears in the C text of the prose saga (Tucker 1998, 31, l. 101). The word is also used in Anon Mhkv 7/8III of the ordeal of the biblical hero Eleazar (Eljárnir), who was crushed beneath an elephant (1 Macc. VI.43-7).

Close

slíka ‘such’

2. slíkr (adj.): such

[5] slíka: ‘[...]ca’ 673b, ‘ſlica’ 673bÞH

Close

morð ‘battle’

1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle < morðlinnr (noun m.)

kennings

boði mjúks morðlinns,
‘Messenger of the smooth battle-serpent, ’
   = WARRIOR

the smooth battle-serpent, → SWORD
Messenger of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

morð ‘battle’

1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle < morðlinnr (noun m.)

kennings

boði mjúks morðlinns,
‘Messenger of the smooth battle-serpent, ’
   = WARRIOR

the smooth battle-serpent, → SWORD
Messenger of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

linns ‘serpent’

linnr (noun m.): snake < morðlinnr (noun m.)

kennings

boði mjúks morðlinns,
‘Messenger of the smooth battle-serpent, ’
   = WARRIOR

the smooth battle-serpent, → SWORD
Messenger of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

linns ‘serpent’

linnr (noun m.): snake < morðlinnr (noun m.)

kennings

boði mjúks morðlinns,
‘Messenger of the smooth battle-serpent, ’
   = WARRIOR

the smooth battle-serpent, → SWORD
Messenger of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

boði ‘Messenger’

boði (noun m.; °-a; -ar): messenger, breaker

kennings

boði mjúks morðlinns,
‘Messenger of the smooth battle-serpent, ’
   = WARRIOR

the smooth battle-serpent, → SWORD
Messenger of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

vestu ‘be’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

notes

[8] sem Jób inn gamli; vestu framr í frægri freistni ‘as Job the old [did]; be bold in a trial [which will be] famous’: Cf. the C text of the prose saga og þola freistingar med Yób hinum gamla ‘and endure temptations with [?like] Job the old’ (Tucker 1998, 27, l. 82; Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxi). The designation of Job as inn gamli only occurs in Pl and C, and Louis-Jensen (1998, cxi-ii) has argued that the Pl poet introduced it to satisfy the demands of aðalhending, proffering this as an example to support the thesis that the author of the C redaction of the saga knew and was influenced by Pl. Both the Lat. and other ON prose texts make the comparison with the suffering of the Old Testament figure Job, and it comes up again in st. 26/8. On references to the Book of Job in OIcel. texts, see Kirby 1976-80, I, 24-30.

Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[8] sem Jób inn gamli; vestu framr í frægri freistni ‘as Job the old [did]; be bold in a trial [which will be] famous’: Cf. the C text of the prose saga og þola freistingar med Yób hinum gamla ‘and endure temptations with [?like] Job the old’ (Tucker 1998, 27, l. 82; Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxi). The designation of Job as inn gamli only occurs in Pl and C, and Louis-Jensen (1998, cxi-ii) has argued that the Pl poet introduced it to satisfy the demands of aðalhending, proffering this as an example to support the thesis that the author of the C redaction of the saga knew and was influenced by Pl. Both the Lat. and other ON prose texts make the comparison with the suffering of the Old Testament figure Job, and it comes up again in st. 26/8. On references to the Book of Job in OIcel. texts, see Kirby 1976-80, I, 24-30.

Close

frægri ‘famous’

frægr (adj.; °-jan/-an; compar. -ri, superl. -jastr/-astr/-str): famous, renowned

notes

[8] sem Jób inn gamli; vestu framr í frægri freistni ‘as Job the old [did]; be bold in a trial [which will be] famous’: Cf. the C text of the prose saga og þola freistingar med Yób hinum gamla ‘and endure temptations with [?like] Job the old’ (Tucker 1998, 27, l. 82; Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxi). The designation of Job as inn gamli only occurs in Pl and C, and Louis-Jensen (1998, cxi-ii) has argued that the Pl poet introduced it to satisfy the demands of aðalhending, proffering this as an example to support the thesis that the author of the C redaction of the saga knew and was influenced by Pl. Both the Lat. and other ON prose texts make the comparison with the suffering of the Old Testament figure Job, and it comes up again in st. 26/8. On references to the Book of Job in OIcel. texts, see Kirby 1976-80, I, 24-30.

Close

freistni ‘a trial’

freistni (noun f.): trial, temptation

[7] freistni: ‘f[...]ne’ 673b, ‘frestne’ 673bÞH

notes

[8] sem Jób inn gamli; vestu framr í frægri freistni ‘as Job the old [did]; be bold in a trial [which will be] famous’: Cf. the C text of the prose saga og þola freistingar med Yób hinum gamla ‘and endure temptations with [?like] Job the old’ (Tucker 1998, 27, l. 82; Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxi). The designation of Job as inn gamli only occurs in Pl and C, and Louis-Jensen (1998, cxi-ii) has argued that the Pl poet introduced it to satisfy the demands of aðalhending, proffering this as an example to support the thesis that the author of the C redaction of the saga knew and was influenced by Pl. Both the Lat. and other ON prose texts make the comparison with the suffering of the Old Testament figure Job, and it comes up again in st. 26/8. On references to the Book of Job in OIcel. texts, see Kirby 1976-80, I, 24-30.

Close

framr ‘bold’

framr (adj.; °compar. framari/fremri, superl. framastr/fremstr): outstanding, foremost

notes

[8] sem Jób inn gamli; vestu framr í frægri freistni ‘as Job the old [did]; be bold in a trial [which will be] famous’: Cf. the C text of the prose saga og þola freistingar med Yób hinum gamla ‘and endure temptations with [?like] Job the old’ (Tucker 1998, 27, l. 82; Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxi). The designation of Job as inn gamli only occurs in Pl and C, and Louis-Jensen (1998, cxi-ii) has argued that the Pl poet introduced it to satisfy the demands of aðalhending, proffering this as an example to support the thesis that the author of the C redaction of the saga knew and was influenced by Pl. Both the Lat. and other ON prose texts make the comparison with the suffering of the Old Testament figure Job, and it comes up again in st. 26/8. On references to the Book of Job in OIcel. texts, see Kirby 1976-80, I, 24-30.

Close

sem ‘as’

sem (conj.): as, which

notes

[8] sem Jób inn gamli; vestu framr í frægri freistni ‘as Job the old [did]; be bold in a trial [which will be] famous’: Cf. the C text of the prose saga og þola freistingar med Yób hinum gamla ‘and endure temptations with [?like] Job the old’ (Tucker 1998, 27, l. 82; Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxi). The designation of Job as inn gamli only occurs in Pl and C, and Louis-Jensen (1998, cxi-ii) has argued that the Pl poet introduced it to satisfy the demands of aðalhending, proffering this as an example to support the thesis that the author of the C redaction of the saga knew and was influenced by Pl. Both the Lat. and other ON prose texts make the comparison with the suffering of the Old Testament figure Job, and it comes up again in st. 26/8. On references to the Book of Job in OIcel. texts, see Kirby 1976-80, I, 24-30.

Close

Jób ‘Job’

Job (noun m.): Job

notes

[8] sem Jób inn gamli; vestu framr í frægri freistni ‘as Job the old [did]; be bold in a trial [which will be] famous’: Cf. the C text of the prose saga og þola freistingar med Yób hinum gamla ‘and endure temptations with [?like] Job the old’ (Tucker 1998, 27, l. 82; Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxi). The designation of Job as inn gamli only occurs in Pl and C, and Louis-Jensen (1998, cxi-ii) has argued that the Pl poet introduced it to satisfy the demands of aðalhending, proffering this as an example to support the thesis that the author of the C redaction of the saga knew and was influenced by Pl. Both the Lat. and other ON prose texts make the comparison with the suffering of the Old Testament figure Job, and it comes up again in st. 26/8. On references to the Book of Job in OIcel. texts, see Kirby 1976-80, I, 24-30.

Close

inn ‘the’

2. inn (art.): the

notes

[8] sem Jób inn gamli; vestu framr í frægri freistni ‘as Job the old [did]; be bold in a trial [which will be] famous’: Cf. the C text of the prose saga og þola freistingar med Yób hinum gamla ‘and endure temptations with [?like] Job the old’ (Tucker 1998, 27, l. 82; Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxi). The designation of Job as inn gamli only occurs in Pl and C, and Louis-Jensen (1998, cxi-ii) has argued that the Pl poet introduced it to satisfy the demands of aðalhending, proffering this as an example to support the thesis that the author of the C redaction of the saga knew and was influenced by Pl. Both the Lat. and other ON prose texts make the comparison with the suffering of the Old Testament figure Job, and it comes up again in st. 26/8. On references to the Book of Job in OIcel. texts, see Kirby 1976-80, I, 24-30.

Close

gamli ‘old’

gamall (adj.; °gamlan; compar. & superl. „ ellri adj.): old

notes

[8] sem Jób inn gamli; vestu framr í frægri freistni ‘as Job the old [did]; be bold in a trial [which will be] famous’: Cf. the C text of the prose saga og þola freistingar med Yób hinum gamla ‘and endure temptations with [?like] Job the old’ (Tucker 1998, 27, l. 82; Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxi). The designation of Job as inn gamli only occurs in Pl and C, and Louis-Jensen (1998, cxi-ii) has argued that the Pl poet introduced it to satisfy the demands of aðalhending, proffering this as an example to support the thesis that the author of the C redaction of the saga knew and was influenced by Pl. Both the Lat. and other ON prose texts make the comparison with the suffering of the Old Testament figure Job, and it comes up again in st. 26/8. On references to the Book of Job in OIcel. texts, see Kirby 1976-80, I, 24-30.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The beginning of the poem must have introduced Plácitus as a righteous pagan in the service of the Emperor Trajan, and told of the stag hunt that Plácitus and other men undertook, during which he became isolated from the others and confronted a hart larger than the rest of the herd with a crucifix between its horns, which revealed itself as a manifestation of Christ. In the prose texts, Christ’s indication that Plácitus must be tried like Job comes after his baptism and his return to meet the Christ-hart for a second time (see sts 7-10).

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