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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Óldr 20I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 20’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1051.

Anonymous PoemsÓláfs drápa Tryggvasonar
192021

Hrafn ‘The raven’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven < hrafngreddir (noun m.): [raven-feeder]

kennings

Hrafngreddir,
‘The raven-feeder, ’
   = WARRIOR

The raven-feeder, → WARRIOR
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greddir ‘feeder’

greddir (noun m.): feeder < hrafngreddir (noun m.): [raven-feeder]

kennings

Hrafngreddir,
‘The raven-feeder, ’
   = WARRIOR

The raven-feeder, → WARRIOR
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stóð ‘stood’

standa (verb): stand

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hættastr* ‘most hazardous’

hættr (adj.; °compar. -ari/-ri, superl. -astr): dangerous

[2] hættastr*: ‘hattr stod’ Bb

notes

[2] hættastr* ‘most hazardous’: The ms. reading ‘hattr’ would be difficult to make sense of, whether it represented hattr m. ‘hat’ or háttr m. ‘mode, custom’; l. 2 in the ms. lacks aðalhending; and the presence of stóð ‘stood’ in both ll. 1 and 2 is most likely a case of dittography. (a) This emendation, suggested by Gullberg (1875), makes good sense of the ms. reading and yields a kenning-like adjectival phrase hættastr hoddum ‘most hazardous to hoards’, for which there is a close parallel (SnSt Ht 99/3III hringum hæztir ‘most hazardous to rings’). (b) Skj B reads hættr ‘hazardous’, leaves stóð ‘stood’ in l. 2 and emends ‘stod’ in l. 1 to skaut ‘shot’. This provides a verb for hrafngreddir ‘raven-feeder [WARRIOR]’ which in the interpretation above is an apposition to the ‘generous man’ kenning, but it gives a less convincing explanation of Bb’s text and assumes that skaut ‘shot’ is intransitive. (c) NN §3127 reads hættr stoðjafnt, where the second (unattested) word is said to mean ‘straight as a pillar’.

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linns ‘of the serpent’s’

linnr (noun m.): snake

kennings

linns látrkennir,
‘lair-master of the serpent’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the serpent’s lair, → GOLD
master of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
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linns ‘of the serpent’s’

linnr (noun m.): snake

kennings

linns látrkennir,
‘lair-master of the serpent’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the serpent’s lair, → GOLD
master of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
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látr ‘lair’

látr (noun n.; °; dat. -um): lair < látrkennir (noun m.)

kennings

linns látrkennir,
‘lair-master of the serpent’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the serpent’s lair, → GOLD
master of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[4] látrkennir ‘lair-master’: Emendation suggested by Konráð Gíslason (1866a, 248). Bb’s reading could be construed without emendation as látrkœnn ‘lair-wise’, but this does not provide enough syllables, the necessary aðalhending, or the required base-word to the kenning for ‘generous man’. The kenning is here taken in apposition to hrafngreddir ‘raven-feeder [WARRIOR]’, though apposition of two kennings is rare. It could alternatively be taken as the subject of ætti ‘(he) had’ in the subordinate clause, though more complex syntax results.

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látr ‘lair’

látr (noun n.; °; dat. -um): lair < látrkennir (noun m.)

kennings

linns látrkennir,
‘lair-master of the serpent’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the serpent’s lair, → GOLD
master of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[4] látrkennir ‘lair-master’: Emendation suggested by Konráð Gíslason (1866a, 248). Bb’s reading could be construed without emendation as látrkœnn ‘lair-wise’, but this does not provide enough syllables, the necessary aðalhending, or the required base-word to the kenning for ‘generous man’. The kenning is here taken in apposition to hrafngreddir ‘raven-feeder [WARRIOR]’, though apposition of two kennings is rare. It could alternatively be taken as the subject of ætti ‘(he) had’ in the subordinate clause, though more complex syntax results.

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kennir ‘master’

kennir (noun m.): teacher < látrkennir (noun m.)

[4] ‑kennir: ‘kęnn’ Bb

kennings

linns látrkennir,
‘lair-master of the serpent’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the serpent’s lair, → GOLD
master of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[4] látrkennir ‘lair-master’: Emendation suggested by Konráð Gíslason (1866a, 248). Bb’s reading could be construed without emendation as látrkœnn ‘lair-wise’, but this does not provide enough syllables, the necessary aðalhending, or the required base-word to the kenning for ‘generous man’. The kenning is here taken in apposition to hrafngreddir ‘raven-feeder [WARRIOR]’, though apposition of two kennings is rare. It could alternatively be taken as the subject of ætti ‘(he) had’ in the subordinate clause, though more complex syntax results.

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Yggs ‘of Yggr’

1. Yggr (noun m.): Yggr

[5] Yggs: ‘ygs’ Bb

kennings

horskum, ógnblíðustum gildi hjaldrs Yggs.
‘the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the uproar of Yggr. ’
   = WARRIOR

the uproar of Yggr. → BATTLE
the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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Yggs ‘of Yggr’

1. Yggr (noun m.): Yggr

[5] Yggs: ‘ygs’ Bb

kennings

horskum, ógnblíðustum gildi hjaldrs Yggs.
‘the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the uproar of Yggr. ’
   = WARRIOR

the uproar of Yggr. → BATTLE
the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

ógn ‘most battle’

ógn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): terror, battle < ógnblíðr (adj.): battle-happy

kennings

horskum, ógnblíðustum gildi hjaldrs Yggs.
‘the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the uproar of Yggr. ’
   = WARRIOR

the uproar of Yggr. → BATTLE
the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

blíðustum ‘delighting’

blíðr (adj.; °n. sg. nom. & acc. blítt/blíðt; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): gentle, happy < ógnblíðr (adj.): battle-happy

kennings

horskum, ógnblíðustum gildi hjaldrs Yggs.
‘the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the uproar of Yggr. ’
   = WARRIOR

the uproar of Yggr. → BATTLE
the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

hjaldrs ‘of the uproar’

1. hjaldr (noun m.): battle

kennings

horskum, ógnblíðustum gildi hjaldrs Yggs.
‘the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the uproar of Yggr. ’
   = WARRIOR

the uproar of Yggr. → BATTLE
the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

hjaldrs ‘of the uproar’

1. hjaldr (noun m.): battle

kennings

horskum, ógnblíðustum gildi hjaldrs Yggs.
‘the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the uproar of Yggr. ’
   = WARRIOR

the uproar of Yggr. → BATTLE
the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

frá ‘about’

frá (prep.): from

Close

horskum ‘the sage’

horskr (adj.; °compar. -ari): wise

kennings

horskum, ógnblíðustum gildi hjaldrs Yggs.
‘the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the uproar of Yggr. ’
   = WARRIOR

the uproar of Yggr. → BATTLE
the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

gildi ‘dispenser’

gildir (noun m.): payer, supporter

kennings

horskum, ógnblíðustum gildi hjaldrs Yggs.
‘the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the uproar of Yggr. ’
   = WARRIOR

the uproar of Yggr. → BATTLE
the sage, most battle-delighting dispenser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

hafa ‘to have’

hafa (verb): have

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[5-8]: The helmingr’s uncertainty about Óláfr’s fate is reminiscent of Hfr ErfÓl 20-7, and sannfregit ‘truly heard’ may be a direct verbal echo of Hfr ErfÓl 22/5.

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